Pfc. Daniel Candales, assigned to the 82nd Airborne Division, uses the tactical robotic controller to control the expeditionary modular autonomous vehicle as a practice exercise in preparation for Project Convergence at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, Oct. 19, 2021.
Pfc. Daniel Candales, assigned to the 82nd Airborne Division, uses the tactical robotic controller to control the expeditionary modular autonomous vehicle as a practice exercise in preparation for Project Convergence at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, Oct. 19, 2021. (Photo Credit: Sgt. Marita Schwab) VIEW ORIGINAL

Integrating artificial intelligence (AI) into Army logistics can revolutionize supply chain management, optimize resource allocation, and enhance decision-making. However, it necessitates a well-rounded approach that addresses the challenges and concerns accompanying its implementation.

The swift progress in AI technology has uncovered new opportunities for its incorporation in various sectors, including Army logistics. Acknowledging AI’s potential, the Army should endeavor to exploit its capabilities at scale and down to the tactical level to improve supply chain management, resource allocation, and decision-making processes. By aligning with the guiding principles outlined in Joint Publication 4-0, Joint Logistics; Field Manual 4-0, Sustainment Operations; and Army Doctrine Publication 4-0, Sustainment, the Army can develop adaptive, responsive, and effective logistics operations in an increasingly complex and rapidly evolving world. Nonetheless, the integration of AI in Army logistics poses several challenges and concerns, such as finding the optimal balance between automation and human expertise, ensuring robust cybersecurity, addressing ethical issues, and adapting the workforce to the changing technological landscape. This essay examines the potential advantages and disadvantages of AI integration in Army logistics and discusses the well-rounded approach required to maximize benefits while minimizing risks and addressing the concerns associated with its implementation.

Maximizing Supply Chain Management: Real-Life Examples

AI’s transformative power in significantly enhancing supply chain management within the Army is indisputable. As the former commander of Army Materiel Command, Gen. Ed Daly, underscored, AI is crucial in attaining the speed of relevance necessary for practical logistics. His vision encompasses AI and machine learning integrating seamlessly into every aspect of the Army’s logistics processes, resulting in unparalleled efficiency and timely support for Soldiers on the battlefield. In support of this notion, a study published in the International Journal of Production Economics revealed that integrating AI into supply chain management could bolster efficiency by 20 percent or more.

AI’s ability to analyze enormous quantities of data and predict future trends and resource allocation requirements is another significant advantage for Army logistics. By harnessing AI-driven analytics, the Army can anticipate Soldiers’ needs with greater precision, ensuring vital supplies reach their destination at the right time and place. Furthermore, predictive analytics can optimize Army operations by streamlining personnel and equipment distribution. Predictive analytics in Army logistics can determine when vehicle parts require replacement, enabling proactive maintenance before a breakdown occurs. This approach results in considerable cost savings and increased operational safety, reducing the likelihood of unscheduled downtime for maintenance and accidents. Moreover, predictive analytics can refine supply chain management by forecasting supply demands and verifying the right resources are available at the right place and time. This strategy enhances operational efficiency, trims lead times, and improves supply chain visibility.

Adaptive Logistics and Decision-Making: Reacting to Real-Time Information

The capacity to adapt to rapidly changing conditions on the ground is an essential component of modern military operations. Adaptive logistics and decision-making are crucial in sustaining the Army’s effectiveness and responsiveness in complex environments. AI can potentially revolutionize this aspect of military logistics by providing real-time information, sophisticated analytics, and advanced decision-support tools.

A significant benefit of AI in adaptive logistics is its capacity to gather and analyze extensive data from various sources, including sensors, satellites, and other intelligence platforms. In addition, AI can access systems of record data from different Army source systems, like the Global Command and Control System-Army, Logistics Modernization Program, port automation tool, and Transportation Coordinators’ Automated Information for Movements System II. AI can also leverage non-Army systems such as the Global Decision Support System and Logistics Functional Area Services. This comprehensive data analysis enables more informed decision-making and efficient logistics operations.

This information can create a comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the operational environment, allowing commanders to make informed decisions based on real-time intelligence. By having access to accurate and timely data, the Army can respond more effectively to emerging threats, minimize risks, and capitalize on opportunities.

In addition to providing real-time information, AI can enhance decision-making by identifying patterns and trends that may not be readily apparent to human analysts. Through machine learning algorithms and advanced data analytics, AI systems can uncover hidden correlations and generate actionable insights to inform strategic and tactical decisions. For example, AI could help predict enemy movements, anticipate logistical bottlenecks, or identify potential supply chain disruptions before they occur. Equipped with these insights, commanders can make more informed decisions, allocate resources more efficiently, and maintain a competitive edge on the battlefield.

AI can also improve the Army’s ability to respond to unexpected events and contingencies by automating certain logistics planning and decision-making aspects. For instance, AI-driven systems could automatically reroute supplies and personnel in response to changing environmental conditions or sudden disruptions in the supply chain. By automating these processes, the Army can minimize delays and ensure critical resources are delivered where needed most, even amid uncertainty and adversity.

Another application of AI in adaptive logistics involves using simulation and optimization techniques to support decision-making under complex and dynamic conditions. AI-powered simulation models can help commanders explore various scenarios, evaluate potential courses of action, and identify the most effective strategies for achieving their objectives. This can lead to more robust and resilient logistical plans as well as improved overall mission success.

Counterargument

While the integration of AI in Army logistics presents numerous benefits, there are also valid concerns and potential drawbacks to consider. Some critics argue that reliance on AI could lead to overemphasizing technology at the expense of human experience and intuition, which are crucial in complex and unpredictable situations. There is a risk AI could create a false sense of security, leading to overconfidence and strategic errors.

Moreover, the significant costs associated with implementing AI technology, such as infrastructure upgrades, software development, and ongoing maintenance, may outweigh the potential benefits. Budget constraints and competing priorities could make allocating sufficient resources to AI integration challenging, potentially limiting its effectiveness.

Another concern is the vulnerability of AI systems to cyberattacks and adversarial manipulation. As AI-driven logistics systems become more critical to Army operations, they also become a high-value target for adversaries seeking to disrupt or compromise military capabilities. Developing robust cybersecurity measures is crucial, but there is no guarantee these defenses will always be effective against rapidly evolving threats.

Furthermore, consider ethical issues related to AI in military logistics. Using AI could lead to biased decision-making, lack of transparency, or unintended consequences. The responsibility for the actions of AI systems must be clearly defined to ensure accountability in the event of errors or failures.

Lastly, integrating AI in Army logistics may have unintended consequences for the logistics military occupational specialty. While automating specific tasks can lead to increased efficiency, it may also result in job displacement and the need for significant workforce retraining. Ensuring the Army can adapt to these changes and retain a skilled workforce is essential, but it will require ongoing effort and investment.

While the concerns raised in the counterargument are valid, it is essential to note the potential benefits of integrating AI should not be dismissed outright. Instead, a balanced approach is necessary, carefully considering the risks and challenges associated with AI implementation while seeking to harness its transformative potential in Army logistics. By developing a well-rounded strategy, the Army can address these concerns and maximize the benefits of AI integration.

Conclusion

Integrating AI into Army logistics offers numerous opportunities to revolutionize supply chain management, optimize resource allocation, and enhance decision-making processes. However, it is crucial to recognize and address the challenges and concerns associated with AI implementation, such as striking the right balance between automation and human expertise, ensuring robust cybersecurity, addressing ethical issues, and adapting the workforce to the changing technological landscape.

To fully capitalize on AI’s potential, the Army should adopt a comprehensive approach that includes investing in AI infrastructure, fostering collaboration between the public and private sectors, providing ongoing education and training for personnel, and developing robust cybersecurity measures. Additionally, it is essential to maintain an open dialogue about the ethical implications of AI in military logistics and establish clear guidelines and accountability structures to ensure responsible AI deployment.

By adopting a well-rounded approach, the Army can overcome the challenges associated with AI integration, unlock its transformative potential, and maintain a competitive edge in the increasingly complex and rapidly evolving global security environment.

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Col. Everett “Bud” Lacroix currently serves as the support operations officer for the 21st Theater Sustainment Command. Previously, he served as the battalion commander for the 49th Transportation Battalion and 6th Brigade Support Battalion, 4th Security Force Assistance Brigade. He is a graduate of the U.S. Army Intermediate Level Education program at the Army’s Command and General Staff College, the Joint and Combined Warfighting School at the Joint Forces Staff College, and the College of Naval Warfare at the United States Naval War College. He also holds a Master of Science in administration with a concentration in leadership from Central Michigan University and a Master of Arts in national security and strategic studies from the Naval War College.

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This article was published in the Summer 2023 issue of Army Sustainment.

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