By U.S. Africa CommandMarch 10, 2010
WASHINGTON, D.C. -- In testimony before Congress March 9, 2010, the commander of U.S. Africa Command provided an overview of the strategic environment in Africa, explained U.S. AFRICOM's strategic approach, and showed how security cooperation efforts promote stability in support of U.S. foreign policy and national security objectives.
General William "Kip" Ward testified before the Senate Armed Services Committee as part of an annual requirement for regional military commanders. He was scheduled to testify before the House Armed Services Committee on March 10.
As part of his testimony, Ward submitted a 48-page written posture statement on U.S. Africa Command, which was released by the committee in conjunction with the hearing.
"Through sustained security engagement with African militaries, U.S. Africa Command is supporting U.S. national interests and both the President's priorities and our African partners' objectives-now and in the long-term," Ward said in his posture statement.
Below is the full text of the U.S. Africa Command posture statement.
SENATE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE
STATEMENT OF GENERAL WILLIAM E. WARD, USA
COMMANDER, UNITED STATES AFRICA COMMAND
BEFORE THE SENATE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE
9 March 2010
SENATE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE - WRITTEN STATEMENT
* Nature of the Environment
* Areas of Potential Conflict and Impacts on Peace and Security
* Transnational Challenges - Violent Extremism, Trafficking, Piracy
* Public Health, Economic Development, and Democratization
* The African Security Sector
U.S. AFRICA COMMAND'S APPROACH
AFRICA COMMAND PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES
* Building Capacity of Partner Conventional Forces
* Supporting Capacity Building of Partner Security Forces
* Building Capacity of Partner Enabling Forces
* Fostering Strong Strategic Relationships
* Conducting Defense Sector Reform
* Fostering Regional Cooperation, Situational Awareness, and Interoperability
* Countering Transnational and Extremist Threats
* Contributing to Stability in Current Zones of Conflict
* Addressing Conditions that Contribute to Instability
COMPONENT AND SUBORDINATE COMMAND ACTIVITIES
* U.S. Army Africa (USARAF)
* U.S. Naval Forces, Africa (NAVAF)
* U.S. Air Forces, Africa (AFAFRICA)
* U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Africa (MARFORAF)
* U.S. Special Operations Command, Africa (SOCAFRICA)
* Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA)
COMMAND ENABLERS: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
* Theater Infrastructure and Posture Requirements
* Interagency Integration and Contribution
* Well-being Programs
It is my privilege as commander of United States Africa Command to present to Congress our Posture Statement for 2010. U.S. Africa Command's operations and programs protect American lives and interests, in Africa and in the homeland, by supporting security and stability in Africa and its island states. We concentrate our strategy and efforts on helping African states build capable and professional militaries that are subordinate to civilian authority, respect human rights, and adhere to the rule of law. We are assisting our African partners in building capacities to counter transnational threats from violent extremist organizations; to stem illicit trafficking in humans, narcotics, and weapons; to support peacekeeping operations; and to address the consequences of humanitarian disasters-whether man-made or natural-that cause loss of life and displace populations.
Supporting the development of professional and capable militaries contributes to increasing security and stability in Africa-allowing African states and regional organizations to promote democracy, to expand development, to provide for their common defense, and to better serve their people.
In his address in Ghana last July, President Obama reaffirmed Africa's strategic importance to the United States and our national interests. He identified four priorities for the U.S. government's engagement efforts:
* Supporting strong and sustainable democracies and good governance
* Fostering sustained economic growth and development
* Increasing access to quality health and education
* Helping to prevent, mitigate, and resolve armed conflict
Through sustained security engagement with African militaries, U.S. Africa Command is supporting U.S. national interests and both the President's priorities and our African partners' objectives-now and in the long-term.
In this report, I provide an overview of the strategic environment in Africa, explain our strategic approach, and show how our security cooperation efforts, designed and executed in close coordination with our interagency partners, are promoting stability in Africa in support of U.S. foreign policy and national security objectives.
The challenges and opportunities in U.S. Africa Command's Area of Responsibility (AOR) are complex and dynamic. The application of only military means is insufficient to help our partners address them. U.S. Africa Command seeks to be part of a coordinated effort that integrates all tools available to our international and interagency partners.
Our discussion of the strategic environment in Africa begins with the key Defense Department concerns noted by the President: the potential for conflict, transnational threats, and other threats to peace and security. It is followed by an overview of the important issues faced by our African partner militaries as they seek to confront these threats.
Nature of the Environment
Africa is a large and diverse continent whose land mass is about three and a half times the size of the continental United States. The distance from Africa's northernmost tip to its southernmost tip is roughly equal to the distance from New York to Moscow. Its 53 countries each have unique histories.
Africa is home to one billion people, divided among 800 ethnicities and speaking about 1,000 different languages. Ethnic ties are strong, and ethnic dynamics often influence national politics. Africa's population growth rate is the highest in the world. Of the 40 countries worldwide with the highest rates of growth, 34 are African.
While an increasing number of African states are conducting elections, many of the requirements of enduring liberal democracies, such as the rule of law, protection of individual rights, and a vibrant civil society, are nascent or non-existent. Additionally, in some countries previously demonstrating liberalization and democratization, increasing examples of authoritarianism are emerging.
Areas of Potential Conflict and Impacts on Peace and Security
Africa is still dealing with the effects of widespread conflict that engulfed the continent following the independence movements of the last half of the last century, with some still on-going today.
The effects of armed conflict in Africa are severe. The African Union (AU) estimates that Africa has the world's largest number of forcibly displaced individuals, with close to three million refugees and approximately 11.6 million internally displaced persons in 19 countries across the continent.
According to a 2007 study by Oxfam International on the economic impact of armed conflict, 23 African countries lost an estimated $284 billion in revenue between 1990 and 2005 as a result of armed conflict. Oxfam estimated that an armed conflict in Africa contracts a country's economy on average by 15 percent. Conflict is a major obstacle to development and the delivery of basic services, such as health and education.
Today, eight of the 17 ongoing peacekeeping operations or political missions administered by the United Nations (UN) are on the African continent. The eight missions in Africa account for approximately 75 percent of the UNs' military, police, and civilian peacekeepers deployed world-wide. The number and scale of peacekeeping missions increasingly strain donor states and regional organizations. Therefore, it is in our interests to help our African partners improve their capabilities and broaden their capacities.
While the number of violent conflicts in Africa has decreased throughout the past 10 years, significant potential for new and continued conflict remains.
* In Sudan, Darfur remains insecure, violence has increased in Southern Sudan, and tensions continue in border areas.
* Somalia remains a country in armed conflict, as its Transitional Federal Government (TFG) battles violent Islamic extremists.
* Despite pressure by the Ugandan People's Defence Forces (UPDF), scattered elements of the Lord's Resistance Army continue to operate and commit atrocities against civilian populations in the Central African Republic, northern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Southern Sudan.
* In the DRC, independent local militias, the insurgent Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda, and some ill-disciplined Congolese armed forces remain destabilizing forces in the country's eastern region.
Threats to stability do not necessarily manifest themselves in conflict, but can nevertheless have a corrosive influence on the development of good governance, viable market economies, and effective security sectors. Weakly governed spaces provide favorable operating environments for violent extremism, piracy, and trafficking of humans, weapons, and drugs, posing direct threats to the U.S. homeland and our interests abroad.
Violent extremism by transnational terrorist organizations is a major source of regional instability. In the last year, al-Qaeda and terrorist groups in Africa appear to have strengthened their collaboration. Al-Qaeda operatives are active in East Africa, while al-Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) operates across the trans-Sahara region of Northern and Western Africa. The leaders of Somalia-based Al-Shabaab have publicly aligned themselves with al-Qaeda, having issued public statements praising Osama Bin Ladin and linking Somalia to al-Qaeda's global operations. Al-Shabaab also announced its support to al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) at the same time that AQAP activities increased in Yemen, separated from Somalia by the 20-mile wide Bab-el-Mandab Strait. Al-Shabaab continues to operate multiple terrorist training camps in Somalia with al-Qaeda participation.
Al-Qaeda and al-Qaeda affiliates also target the United States and our European and African partners across North Africa and the Sahel. Terrorist activities, kidnapping, illicit trafficking of all types (humans, weapons, drugs), and the existence of under-governed spaces in the Sahel contribute to the region's vulnerability and make it susceptible to extremist influences.
Countries of the Maghreb, like Algeria and Morocco, partner with the United States to respond to terrorism and check the western extension of al-Qaeda and its affiliates. Yet, enhancing security depends upon regional cooperation and the development of stable and growing economies to undercut the recruiting activities of violent extremist organizations.
Narcotics trafficking is a growing concern in Africa. West Africa is a node for Latin American drugs transiting to their primary destination in European markets. In addition, drugs originating in Asia are transported through South and East Africa on their way to Europe. The destabilizing and corrupting influence of narcotics trafficking threatens to turn Guinea-Bissau into a narco-state and helps to expand the Latin American cartel's network and influence throughout the region. Many African countries lack the capability to interdict the flow of narcotics-on land, air, or sea. While not as directly impacted by narcotics flows through Africa as our European allies, the United States has a vested interest in countering the destabilizing impacts of drug trafficking on security, stability, and development in Africa.
Many Africans also remain vulnerable to human trafficking in the forms of forced labor, child labor, child soldiers, and slavery. While some countries are making strides to counter trafficking in persons, many lack the law enforcement capacity to address this problem.
Incidents of piracy in the Horn of Africa and Gulf of Aden have continued to receive international attention. In 2009, pirate attacks continued to escalate in frequency and expanded their geographic range in the western Indian Ocean out to 1,000 nautical miles from the African coast. U.S. Africa Command continues to support counter-piracy operations through the employment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Maritime Patrol Aircraft temporarily based in the Seychelles.
Public Health, Economic Development, and Democratization
Public health, economic development, and democratization challenges continue to significantly impact the security environment in Africa.
Public Health Sector
African populations remain at great risk to a host of infectious diseases, including 2009 H1N1 Influenza. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis, and malaria are the leading causes of adult mortality in Africa. Most African countries lack adequate capacity and capability to contain or mitigate the threat of pandemic diseases.
Pandemic disease is not only a human security issue, but also a military readiness challenge. For example, some of our African partners have professional and capable militaries that contribute thousands of soldiers to UN and AU missions in Somalia, Sudan, DRC, and elsewhere. However, they would have even greater peacekeeping capacities if it were not for the high rates of HIV/AIDS incidence found in their military forces.
Until the global economic crisis of late 2008, Africa as a whole experienced a 10-year trend of sustained economic growth, averaging more than 5 percent growth in gross domestic product per year. High oil prices enabled some African oil-producing countries to achieve economic growth that rivaled the world's highest rates. However, countries solely dependent on oil and extractive commodities revenue were vulnerable to falling prices. In many cases, undiversified economies, high unemployment, and corruption, have prevented the wealth generated by Africa's natural resources from finding its way to the neediest segments of African societies. The UN identified Africa as the world's most impoverished continent, containing 25 of the world's poorest countries.
Throughout the past 20 years, many African countries have moved toward democratic processes, good governance, and the rule of law. In January 2009, Ghanaian voters conducted their fourth free and fair presidential election in 15 years. For the second time, the ruling party was peacefully replaced by the opposition. In April 2009, more than 13 million South Africans went to the polls and elected Jacob Zuma, the country's fourth president since the end of apartheid, and Botswana, in October 2009, held its tenth democratic presidential election since independence-the most of any post-colonial sub-Saharan African country. Since the 1990s, many African states have also moved from dictatorship toward democracy.
The African Security Sector
Although African countries have consistently expressed a strong desire to provide for their security and address these various challenges themselves, many lack sufficient means to do so without foreign assistance. The challenges they face can be broadly described as:
* Militaries have frequently been used as tools of authoritarian regimes to protect their leaders and suppress the opposition. This has led to corruption and distrust by the populace.
* Increased professionalization of many African militaries remains a work in progress. Traditionally, the development of maritime and air components has lagged that of land components in most African militaries.
* The legacy of Cold War politics flooded Africa with competing streams of military equipment, tactics, and doctrine. Much of what remains is poorly functioning and ill-suited for confronting today's challenges.
* Although regional cooperation has improved tremendously, combined efforts to confront transnational challenges are limited. Domestic politics can inhibit a government's willingness to take strong action against a violent extremist organization or other direct threats.
* The AU's African Standby Force and its five Brigades have shown continued development, but are not yet fully mission capable. They lack sufficient enablers to become self-sustaining as a peacekeeping and crisis response force. National peacekeeping capabilities are similarly lacking, although some countries have made regular and substantial contributions to international peacekeeping missions.
U.S. AFRICA COMMAND's APPROACH
Our approach is founded in our overall national security interests on the continent as outlined by the President and Secretaries of State and Defense. The United States and our African partners have strong mutual interests in promoting security and stability on the continent of Africa, its island states, and maritime zones. Advancing these interests requires a unified approach that integrates our efforts with those of other U.S. government (USG) departments, agencies, and our African and other international partners.
Our programs and activities support U.S. national interests as well as pursue four defense-oriented goals expressed by our African partners:
First, that they have capable and accountable military forces that perform professionally and with integrity;
Second, that their forces are supported and sustained by effective, legitimate, and professional security institutions;
Third, that they have the capability to exercise the means nationally and regionally to dissuade, deter, and defeat transnational threats;
Fourth, that they have the capacity to increase their support to international peacekeeping efforts.
Fostering stability supports the pursuit of these goals, and allows further opportunities to reinforce success.
Our approach is subordinate to overall USG policy goals. We work in concert with our interagency partners, such as the U.S. Department of State (DOS) and United States Agency for International Development (USAID), to ensure our plans and activities directly support U.S. foreign policy objectives.
Africa's challenges require a holistic view of security that includes defense, law enforcement, and customs and border security. Addressing defense-related challenges must be pursued in concert with other USG and partner security-related endeavors to sustain unity of effort.
Our activities must provide immediate benefits and help our partners progress toward their long-term goals. Our mission is "sustained security engagement;"providing programs and activities that build for the future and reinforce success.
Regional cooperation is critical, whether it be neighboring countries working together against mutual threats, or region-wide efforts to establish common security networks, such as the AU's cooperative security architecture. Our approach focuses on mutual interests, fostering interoperability and common situational awareness, regionally-oriented capacity building, and enhancing relationships built on trust and cooperation. The more the countries of Africa work together, the greater the likelihood that the continent will achieve lasting stability.
These goals support our national security interests. Increasing African partner capability to identify and interdict threats emanating from the continent enhances the security of the U.S. homeland. Enhancing the capacity of African forces to respond to threats to peace and stability on the continent allows the United States to use its forces for other operations. The development of capable and professional military forces can support efforts to consolidate democratic principles and good governance by fostering transparency and accountability in the military, which historically has been one of the most important institutions in modern African societies.
U.S. AFRICA COMMAND PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES
U.S. Africa Command's programs and activities support the development of capable, professional partner military forces, and are integrated and coordinated with the DOS, U.S. Chiefs of Mission, and our international partners. Africa Command conducts several categories of activities to support our four primary goals and address current security challenges that threaten stability. The primary purposes of our activities can be categorized as follows:
* Building the capacity of partner conventional forces
* Supporting capacity building of partner security forces
* Building the capacity of partner enabling forces
* Fostering strong strategic relationships
* Conducting defense sector reform
* Fostering regional cooperation, situational awareness, and interoperability
* Countering transnational and extremist threats
* Contributing to stability in current zones of conflict
* Addressing conditions that contribute to instability
Building Capacity of Partner Conventional Forces
U.S. Soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines are terrific trainers and exemplary examples of military professionalism and our core national values. The training and exercises they conduct encourage the development of partner security capabilities and the instilling of professional ethos among African military elements. Moreover, most of these activities can be performed with small numbers of U.S. forces. Some examples of our recent activities include:
NATURAL FIRE, Uganda
In October 2009, U.S. Africa Command, with U.S. Army Africa (USARAF) as the lead component, brought together more than 1,200 soldiers and civilians from six countries for Exercise NATURAL FIRE 10 in Uganda. The exercise improved inter-operability and helped build African partner capacity to respond to complex humanitarian emergencies. The region jointly exercised contingency plans designed to address a global health threat of pandemic influenza. Approximately 550 U.S. personnel and 650 soldiers from Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda participated.
Africa Partnership Station
Africa Partnership Station (APS) is U.S. Africa Command's primary maritime security engagement initiative and is now a program of record. In cooperation with partner states and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), APS builds maritime security capabilities in our Africa partners using sea-based training platforms to provide predictable regional presence with a minimal footprint ashore. Our training and assistance focuses on strengthening four pillars of maritime sector development: a competent and professional maritime security force; secure infrastructure to sustain maritime operations; maritime domain awareness; and maritime response capability. Our African partners view APS as a successful maritime initiative and are enthusiastic participants.
From January through May 2009, the Command employed the USS NASHVILLE to support APS. With representatives from nine European allies, 10 African countries, and Brazil, APS doubled the number of partners participating in the planning and execution compared to previous engagements. APS conducted 10 engagements in seven countries-Senegal, Liberia, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Sao Tome and Principe, and Gabon. U.S. Marines and their counterparts from Spain and Portugal conducted security cooperation events with more than 800 African military professionals in Senegal, Liberia, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon and Gabon. More than 1,750 African professionals were engaged in 64 workshops and seminars.
The success and effectiveness of our engagements was demonstrated when the Benin Navy boarded and freed a pirated tanker without loss of life. APS in Benin was a principal enabler for that mission. Benin's Navy participated in APS instruction focused on Visit, Board, Search and Seizure, small boat operations, Anti-Terrorism/Force Protection, and use of the Automated Information System (AIS), which was installed during their training. The Benin Navy used maritime domain awareness tools provided by APS to guide one of its ships to assist the tanker, allowing its Navy to take action against a threat affecting the interests of Benin, the United States, and the international community.
U.S. Naval Forces, Africa (NAVAF), is building on the success of the APS in West Africa by conducting similar activities in East Africa. APS-East will work to build our African partners' capabilities in small boat operations. Our partners include Kenya, Mozambique, the Seychelles, Mauritius, and Tanzania. The activities of the USS BRADLEY and the USS ARLEIGH BURKE in 2009 served as a pilot deployment for APS-East and made great inroads in South and East Africa. In addition, the Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) established a maritime center of excellence in Mombasa, Kenya, to provide maritime training to African states. Both DOS and DOD approved a Section 1206 (Fiscal Year 06 National Defense Authorization Act, as amended) program to provide small boats, AIS, and surface search radars to Djibouti, Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania, the Seychelles, Mauritius, and Comoros. The latter effort will establish a basic surveillance capability along the entire East African coast. We plan to sustain and supplement this project through Foreign Military Financing (FMF).
AFRICAN LION, Morocco
AFRICAN LION is an annual exercise with Morocco, a key regional ally and active contributor to international peacekeeping operations. U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Africa (MARFORAF) is U.S. Africa Command's lead component for the exercise, which focuses on U.S.-Morocco interoperability, air and ground combined arms training, staff training, Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) training, medical and disaster response training, public affairs training, and humanitarian civic assistance operations. Last year, during AFRICAN LION 09, medical teams conducted humanitarian civic assistance in five villages, treating more than 17,000 Moroccans and 9,500 livestock. Numerous Fiscal Year (FY) 2010-2011 Exercise Related Construction projects are scheduled to improve training ranges, strategic access, and delivery of logistics support in support of AFRICAN LION. U.S Air Forces Africa (AFAFRICA) will spearhead its participation in AFRICAN LION through the State Partnership Program, with the Utah Air National Guard providing KC-135 tankers and personnel.
Building effective non-commissioned officer (NCO) corps
Several African countries have under-developed NCO corps, which in some cases are vulnerable to corruptive influences. Our African partners recognize that effective NCO corps are essential to developing capable and sustainable units, which will contribute to overall stability and security. They have turned to us for assistance. By helping partners develop their NCO corps, we have an opportunity to instill the qualities and character that will allow them to train and guide their own development in this area.
Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and Foreign Military Sales (FMS)
A particular challenge many of our partners face is the lack of serviceable equipment-from individual military gear to vehicles to other major systems. FMF and FMS are two programs we are leveraging to help address these shortfalls. U.S. Africa Command is working with U.S. country teams to develop and implement FMF programs to procure systems that increase interoperability among African partners, international allies, and the United States. U.S. Africa Command is employing the Excess Defense Articles program under FMS to supply trucks, personal soldier equipment, and uniforms to support the deployment of peacekeeping battalions to Darfur, Somalia, and Liberia.
Supporting Capacity Building of Partner Security Forces
Achieving security and stability in Africa requires more than the contributions of the military alone. Security is a holistic function that includes non-military elements such as law enforcement, border patrol, customs, and judiciary. U.S. Africa Command works closely with USG departments and agencies to ensure that we plan and conduct our efforts as seamlessly as possible.
African Maritime Law Enforcement Partnership (AMLEP)
AMLEP is a cooperative maritime law enforcement program with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. U.S. Coast Guard and host nation Law Enforcement Detachments (LEDET) embark on U.S. and host nation ships and law enforcement vessels to provide the vessel with the necessary authorities and capabilities to conduct boardings, search, seizure, and arrests within the participating African country's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
AMLEP operations were conducted with Senegal, Morocco, Sierra Leone, and Cape Verde, with the support of DOS, French Maritime Air Forces, and the U.S. Coast Guard. Collectively, our operations accomplished the following: Maritime Law Enforcement and small boat training for LEDET personnel; the integration of French Maritime Patrol Aircraft capability; and vessel boardings led by the respective country's LEDET team.
The highlight of our engagements occurred in August when the Republic of Sierra Leone's Armed Forces Maritime Wing detained the 750-ton Taiwan F/V YU FENG 102 for fishing illegally in the Sierra Leone EEZ. The YU FENG's 11 crewmembers were deported to Taiwan and the Feng was impounded by the government of Sierra Leone. The Sierra Leone forces again demonstrated their resolve and capability by seizing four vessels for violation of Sierra Leonean law during December AMLEP operations.
Security Sector Assessments
An integrated and harmonized assessment of a partner nation's requirements is helpful in developing effective and coordinated activities. This past year, U.S. Africa Command participated in DOS-led Security Sector Assessments in Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Ghana, Togo, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Cape Verde, and Mozambique. The resulting interagency plans will ensure our military engagements with these countries are consistent with policy objectives and mutually reinforce the activities of other USG departments and agencies.
Building Capacity of Partner Enabling Forces
Enablers such as logistics, intelligence, communications, and de-mining capabilities play vital roles in the U.S. military, and facilitate our ability to sustain operations independently. Developing similar enablers or enabling capabilities among African countries can help reduce their dependence on foreign assistance when conducting military operations. Many of our capacity building activities in this area add tremendous value while requiring only a minimal commitment of U.S. personnel.
Logistics Capacity Building
Our African partners recognize the importance of logistics and have benefitted from several U.S. Africa Command training events and symposia in this area. For example, experts from U.S. MARFORAF provided vital logistics support and guidance to assist the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces in packaging and loading a UN ship in preparation for their first United Nations-African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) deployment.
The Africa Deployment Assistance Partnership Team (ADAPT) develops African military logistics capacities to enable them to manage and support peacekeeping operations. ADAPT training provided by U.S. Africa Command's Army and Air Force components enabled the Rwandan Defence Force to load and deploy vehicles, equipment, and supplies to support UNAMID. ADAPT also allowed the Ugandan People's Defence Force to certify Ugandan soldiers to load equipment on U.S. military aircraft (C-130 and C-17), strengthening their ability to support peacekeeping operations and disaster response operations employing U.S. or UN cargo aircraft. These Soldiers will also serve as co-trainers for future ADAPT activities. ADAPT activities are planned in Nigeria and Tanzania in 2010.
In 2009, U.S. Africa Command conducted the first Partnership for Integrated Logistics, Operations, and Tactics (PILOT ) symposium with 25 African participants. PILOT is an operational-level seminar jointly designed and funded through partnership with the Canadian Ministry of Defence, Canadian Pearson Peacekeeping Centre. PILOT focuses on familiarization with the legal and ethical aspects of peacekeeping; the roles, missions, and functions of the AU and the UN in peacekeeping; planning logistics staff estimates for PKO; planning Reception, Staging, Onward Movement and Integration operations; planning Force Deployment Planning and Execution; and an overview of the Joint Operational Planning Process.
Intelligence Capacity Building
Military intelligence is an essential capability for all professional militaries. The ability to collect, analyze, and synthesize information is key to developing effective military plans.
U.S. Africa Command's Intelligence Security Cooperation and Engagement (ISCE) Program seeks to build sustainable military intelligence capacity in designated partner nations and regional organizations. ISCE develops and implements common military intelligence doctrine and procedures. It emphasizes the rule of law, respect for human rights, and civil authority in order to reverse the historical stigma associated with many African intelligence and security services. Program activities include familiarization seminars; senior intelligence officer visits; Director of Military Intelligence conferences; intelligence exchanges and analyst roundtables; and a series of officer and non-commissioned officer intelligence training courses.
The Military Intelligence Basic Officer Course-Africa (MIBOC-A) is a course offered to junior military intelligence officers, primarily from north and west Africa. In addition to teaching professional intelligence skills, it promotes relationships among the intelligence communities that encourage greater cooperation in the future. U.S. Africa Command conducted two MIBOC-A courses in FY09 and one so far in FY10.
Communications Systems Development
One way to foster regional cooperation is to establish means by which partner militaries can reliably and effectively communicate with each other. However, because African communications infrastructure is underdeveloped, U.S. Africa Command is developing programs that improve the communications architecture among African military leaders.
The AU Command, Control, Communications, and Information Systems initiative is an effort to enable the AU's command and control of its Standby Force. This initiative achieved its first milestone with the recent ribbon-cutting of the new AU Peace Support Operations Center, and will continue by establishing similar command and control nodes at the regional Standby Brigade Headquarters, planning cells, and logistics cells. This initiative is also pursuing connectivity with the AU Mission in Somalia (AMISOM).
We are also supporting two other regional initiatives. The Economic Community of Western African States' (ECOWAS) Regional Information Exchange System provides workstations, internet access, and telephone services to senior defense leaders in 11 ECOWAS countries, and this will soon expand to 13. Meanwhile, the Multinational Information Sharing Initiative has just begun, and it will provide similar mobile capabilities to the Operation Enduring Freedom-Trans Sahara (OEF-TS) countries throughout the next three years.
De-Mining Capacity Building
U.S. Africa Command conducts "Train-the-Trainer" Humanitarian Mine Action missions to build our partners' anti-mine capacities and support broader U.S. and international efforts to eliminate landmines and other explosive remnants of war. We initiated programs in Kenya, Burundi, Mozambique, and Namibia in 2009, and will expand mine action programs to the Democratic Republic of Congo, Senegal, and Chad in 2010. We are also working with Uganda to develop anti-mine capabilities in support of Ugandan peacekeeping deployments to AMISOM.
Special Staff Programs
Efforts to establish capable and accountable forces involve mechanisms that allow the partner military leadership to establish and enforce standards of conduct and readiness. These mechanisms should be transparent to ensure equal treatment, fairness, and common expectations. Through mentoring and information exchanges, our inspector general, chaplain, legal counsel, surgeon, public affairs, and other special staff elements work closely with partner countries to build capacity in these areas in support of improving the military's standing with its government and people.
Fostering Strong Strategic Relationships
Strong strategic relationships are important enablers for sustaining the positive gains of our capacity building activities. They encourage our partners to assume greater ownership of their newfound capabilities. They provide ready opportunities to reinforce success through follow-on activities and open communication links that facilitate new or evolving requirements. They also encourage dialogue with other partners.
The National Guard State Partnership Program
The State Partnership Program is a superb tool that fosters a variety of military-to-military, military-to-civilian, and civilian-to-civilian engagements using National Guard and U.S. states' capabilities. Eight African countries currently partner with U.S. states through this program: Tunisia-Wyoming; Morocco-Utah; Ghana-North Dakota; South Africa-New York; Nigeria-California; Senegal-Vermont; Liberia-Michigan; and Botswana-North Carolina.
The benefits of this program from the past year are many and impressive. For example, in Tunisia, the Wyoming Guard is helping the Tunisian Government integrate Ground Surveillance Radar into border patrol operations. In West Africa, U.S. Africa Command's Air Force Component, U.S. Air Forces Africa (AFAFRICA), partnered with the Deputy Under Secretary of the Air Force for International Affairs, the Tennessee Air National Guard, and the Warner-Robins Air Logistics Center to coordinate military-to-military efforts to rebuild the first of four Nigerian C-130s. In Botswana, the North Carolina Air Guard demonstrated its Modular Airborne Firefighting System capability; an event of key importance to Botswana due to the annual range fires that destroy grazing land and the habitat for one of Botswana's most important national resources-its wildlife.
The State Partnership Program delivers programs and activities that build broad capabilities with our African partners. The habitual relationships this builds adds tremendous value to our efforts. This program is very valuable to U.S. Africa Command, and we look forward to expanding it as our African partners request greater participation. I urge your continued support.
International Military Education and Training (IMET) and Expanded IMET (E-IMET)
Professionalizing militaries and reinforcing the democratic value of elected civilian authority are among the benefits of the DOS-led IMET and E-IMET programs. These comprise the most widely-used military assistance programs in U.S. Africa Command's area of responsibility. Approximately 900 military and civilian students from 44 African countries received education and training in the United States or their own countries valued at $19.8 million. Many officers and enlisted IMET graduates go on to fill key positions in our African partners' militaries and governments, and the relationships built in the academic environment directly contribute to stronger bi-lateral military relationships between the United States and partner countries.
IMET funded regional seminars with a Defense Institute for International Legal Studies Military Education Teams (MET) for Chad, Cameroon, DRC, Mauritius and Sierra Leone, and also supported a Center for Civil Military Relations MET for Cameroon, Comoros, DRC, Mauritius, and Guinea Bissau. Sustained support for robust IMET and E-IMET programs is an investment in our future, and directly supports long-term U.S. interests and relationships in Africa. It is one our most desired and productive programs.
Military-to-Military Engagement Programs
U.S. Africa Command uses military-to-military (mil-to-mil) programs to strengthen key relationships and familiarize partners with U.S. military techniques, tactics, and procedures they can employ to address a broad range of security challenges, including conducting peacekeeping operations and countering terrorism. Mil-to-mil also assists partners in improving deployment procedures, logistics systems, maintenance operations, force protection, and the conduct of their own training. In FY04, the initial year of the program, less than $500K was spent in Africa for mil-to-mil programs. Today the mil-to-mil program is the cornerstone of U.S. Africa Command's engagement activities, with $6.3 million allocated and 431 events planned in 40 countries in FY10. This is a relatively small investment with substantial dividends.
Conducting Defense Sector Reform
U.S. Africa Command is a key contributor to the long-term development of professional defense forces as part of broader security sector reform efforts led by the Department of State.
To solidify gains made under the DOS' Security Sector Reform program, U.S. Africa Command commenced a five-year mentorship program with the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) Headquarters Staff and Liberia's 23rd Brigade. We have 56 military mentors in Liberia to continue the professional development of the AFL. ONWARD LIBERTY is one of three lines of effort in our over-arching Defense Sector Reform program in Liberia. We are also working with the U.S. Coast Guard to help the AFL re-establish a Coast Guard-like capability, and with the Office of the Secretary of Defense to mentor the Liberian Ministry of Defense.
Democratic Republic of Congo
At the request of the Department of State and DRC, U.S. Africa Command is training and equipping a battalion of the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) in support of USG objectives and priorities established by Secretary of State Clinton during her visit to the DRC in August 2009. We will help the FARDC to: 1) improve its capacity to lead, manage, and sustain its force; 2) enhance its ability to investigate and prosecute its personnel accused of human rights violations and other crimes; and 3) reduce sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) by the military.
The third objective, mitigating SGBV, is important to helping heal the wounds of past conflicts in DRC. We are working closely with the country team and USAID to identify opportunities to provide support to survivors of SGBV. We are pursuing funding for the completion of a maternity hospital in the capital city of Kinshasa that will also provide counseling for SGBV survivors and perform fistula repairs. In South Kivu Province, we are seeking to secure funding for two projects: the construction of a primary school, whose pupils will consist of HIV orphans or survivors and children of SGBV; and a Reference Hospital in Wolungu serving a large, rural population that includes SGBV survivors.
Fostering Regional Cooperation, Situational Awareness, and Interoperability
The spirit of cooperation is growing very strong among African states. Throughout the past two years, participation by African countries has increased steadily in many of our regional activities. All of our activities seek to capitalize on this spirit by bringing partners together to develop collaborative solutions to shared security challenges. The following activities are noteworthy in their emphasis on interoperability.
Exercise AFRICA ENDEAVOR
AFRICA ENDEAVOR is our premier communications interoperability exercise that involves the greatest number of partner countries, and it continues to grow. Exercise AFRICA ENDEAVOR 09 in Gabon brought together 25 countries and three regional organizations (the AU, ECOWAS, and the Economic Community of Central African States). Focusing on information sharing among African states via communication networks, the exercise developed communications links with the United States, NATO, and other countries with common stability, security, and sustainment goals for the region. Participation in this summer's AFRICA ENDEAVOR 10 exercise in Ghana is expected to expand to 30 African states.
Exercise PHOENIX EXPRESS, North Africa
PHOENIX EXPRESS is a multinational maritime security exercise led by U.S. NAVAF and focused on maritime interdiction, communications, and information sharing. Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia increased their participation in the exercise this past year.
Working With Partners to Counter Transnational and Extremist Threats
Transnational challenges in Africa are a threat to the United States, our partners, and our allies. Transnational threats exacerbate difficult circumstances for local populations and complicate efforts to create a secure and stable environment conducive to development. We conduct operations and capacity building programs and activities to address the threat of terrorism, piracy, narcotics and other illicit trafficking.
Counter-terrorism Efforts in North Africa and the Sahel--Operation ENDURING FREEDOM-TRANS SAHARA (OEF-TS)
Special Operations Command, Africa (SOCAFRICA) conducts OEF-TS to counter the terrorism threat in North and West Africa. OEF-TS supports the DOS-led Trans-Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership (TSCTP) by increasing our partners' capabilities to deny safe havens to terrorists, improving border security, promoting democratic governance, and reinforcing regional as well as bilateral military ties. OEF-TS activities are designed to defeat violent extremist organizations throughout the region.
U.S. Africa Command works closely with the DOS and U.S. embassies to ensure we provide the military support needed to meet the objectives of TSCTP, including the following major elements: information operations; train, advise and assist activities; intelligence capacity building; coalition development; military exercise programs; and development and establishment of a regional computer-based information network. All OEF-TS activities are closely coordinated with the State Department and our U.S. embassy country teams.
SOCAFRICA remained very active last year with OEF-TS. Military Information Support Teams assisted DOS public diplomacy efforts in countering extremist ideology in Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad, and Nigeria. OEF-TS created High Frequency-Radio Tactical Communications Interoperability between Algeria and Niger, and Mobile Training Teams (MTTs) trained new Counter-Terrorism (CT) light infantry companies in Mali. The MTTs also trained existing CT units in Tunisia, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal. OEF-TS Military Intelligence courses trained students from seven OEF-TS countries, and the Trans-Sahara Security Symposium civil-military course trained nearly 100 students from four OEF-TS partner countries. Additionally, OEF-TS Civil-Military Support Elements have completed or are planning 79 humanitarian assistance projects.
In the last year, political conditions have allowed us to resume engagement with Mauritania, to include our efforts to build a CT company. Mauritanian security forces lack the capability to logistically sustain themselves during operations. Helping Mauritania develop a logistics capacity will provide Mauritanian security forces with the capability to push supplies and personnel to its forward-deployed CT companies, which operate hundreds of miles away in extremely austere territory. Through U.S. assistance, Mauritania will be able to sustain CT operations within its borders and in partnership with other regional forces.
In West Africa, we are building on efforts in Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, and Burkina Faso. Our activities range from training and equipping specialized CT units to increasing intelligence capabilities and information sharing to supporting efforts that counter extremist ideology in the region. We are working with Mali to develop an intermediate level maintenance and vehicle repair capability, and to improve its air mobility, intelligence, and reconnaissance capabilities. These two programs will bolster the ability of Malian security forces to take direct action against AQIM.
Counter-terrorism Efforts in East Africa
In East Africa, U.S. Africa Command's CJTF-HOA conducts operations to counter violent extremists throughout the region to protect U.S. and coalition interests. In cooperation with other USG departments and agencies, CJTF-HOA focuses its operations on building regional security capacity to combat terrorism, deny safe havens, and reduce support to violent extremist organizations. It accomplishes these objectives through the use of Civil Affairs Teams, Seabee construction teams, military advisors, and by importing security courses of instruction.
U.S. Africa Command has focused the majority of its CT capacity building activities in East Africa on Kenya, Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Uganda, which-aside from Somalia-are the countries directly threatened by terrorists. For example, in Kenya, the Command is assisting in establishing a Ranger Strike Force and a Special Boat Unit, which will become the country's primary CT and border security forces. SOCAFRICA completed training two companies of the Kenyan Ranger Strike Force, and our Special Operations Forces (SOF) maritime efforts have created a nascent Kenyan Special Boat Unit capability to enhance Kenyan maritime security. When completed, Kenya will have a significantly improved capacity to counter the terrorist threat emanating from Somalia.
In Djibouti, U.S. Africa Command is assisting with training of the Djiboutian counter-terrorism unit, the Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale. We are helping with the repair and transfer of 12 vehicles from the AU to Djibouti. The vehicles are specifically for counter-terrorism and border security operations.
The Uganda People's Defence Forces (UPDF) is one of the region's most professional militaries. It is a reliable partner in combating terrorism and, in collaboration with regional partners, is leading operations against the Lord's Resistance Army. Uganda's peacekeeping force in Somalia has played a critical role in providing the TFG an opportunity to establish itself. U.S. Africa Command and CJTF-HOA continue to work with the UPDF to enhance peacekeeping and CT capabilities through Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA), IMET, and PKO funded training.
Our Counter-Narcotics programs train, equip, and support partner nation law enforcement, paramilitary, and military units that have a counter-narcotics and narco-terrorism mission. They build partner capacity to conduct the full range of counter-drug activities, such as sharing information, detecting threats, and interdicting and seizing vessels.
One success from the past year was the construction of a multi-national and interagency fusion center in Cape Verde, funded by our Counter-narcotics Division. The center incorporates U.S. law enforcement, International Police, and Cape Verde law enforcement agencies and maritime forces, and U.S. FMS projects will provide vessels. Our naval component, along with the U.S. Coast Guard, is providing maritime interdiction training and familiarization. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency, Department of Justice, and Department of State are also significant contributors. The goal is to develop a Cape Verde maritime force capable of detecting and interdicting illicit traffickers, and sharing critical law enforcement information with the United States and the international community.
Operation OBJECTIVE VOICE (OOV)
OOV is U.S. Africa Command's information operations effort to counter violent extremism by leveraging media capabilities in ways that encourage the public to repudiate extremist ideologies. OOV is closely coordinated with U.S. embassies, DOS, and USAID, and employs a variety of messaging platforms, such as the African Web Initiative, to challenge the views of terrorist groups and provide a forum for the expression of alternative points of view. OOV also supports local outreach efforts to foster peace, tolerance, and understanding. Examples included a 'youth peace games' in Mali and a film project in northern Nigeria. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the enhanced dialogue has had a positive impact. We are currently collecting baseline data and developing assessments to quantify the overall effects.
Contributing to Stability in Current Zones of Conflict
Long-term efforts to build security capacity can only succeed in an environment of sufficient stability. The United States is supporting African efforts to stabilize current and potential zones of conflict through peacekeeping missions and the growth of robust peacekeeping capacity that includes the AU's African Standby Force.
U.S. Africa Command is closely working with USG stakeholders to support implementation of the comprehensive U.S. Strategy for Sudan. In Southern Sudan, the Command supports professional military education and non-commissioned officer development programs, HIV/AIDS courses and seminars, as well as familiarization events across professional military skills and functional areas. Additionally, we are examining ways in which our assets and resources can strengthen the UN missions operating in the country, and how we can continue to provide support to DOS-led Security Sector Reform efforts.
The lack of an effective central governing authority in Somalia for nearly two decades has created a multitude of de-stabilizing conditions. It has left the country vulnerable to terrorist exploitation, and fosters a permissive environment for piracy and other illicit activities. It also exacerbates a severe humanitarian crisis. AMISOM, the multilateral AU Mission in Somalia, is severely under-resourced, but is essential to securing key TFG locations. The USG's support to AMISOM includes training, equipping, and logistical support for Ugandan and Burundian forces.
Additionally, U.S. Africa Command provides military mentors to ACOTA pre-deployment training for AMISOM forces. Before deploying, each battalion receives staff training and soldier skills training tailored to PKO and the operational environment in Somalia.
We also provide support to U.S. Central Command operations to address the increase of piracy in the western Indian Ocean. Counter-piracy training is also a part of our maritime capacity building efforts in east and southern Africa, such as Africa Partnership Station-East.
Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI)
GPOI is a DOS program that builds peacekeeping capacity in targeted partners and organizations. The GPOI-funded ACOTA program is regularly supported by U.S. Africa Command with officers and non-commissioned officers that serve as trainers and mentors. ACOTA has trained and provided equipment for Ugandan and Burundian forces for AMISOM, and trained Rwandan, South African, Zambian, and Tanzanian Forces for UNAMID.
For FY10, U.S. Africa Command has requested GPOI funding to support training programs to enhance the capabilities of the AU peacekeeping staff, the Economic Community of West African States, the Economic Community of Central African States, and the Southern African Development Community Standby Brigade Headquarters. We have also sought funding for designated member states' tactical units pledged to the respective Regional Standby Brigades.
Addressing Conditions that Contribute to Instability
The U.S. military has a number of civil-military programs that promote good civil-military relations, provide military training benefits, and help develop the humanitarian capacity of African countries. They complement civilian development efforts and are closely coordinated with U.S. embassy country teams.
In August 2009, MEDFLAG 09 was conducted with the Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force as a joint Medical/Dental/Veterinary Capabilities Exercise. U.S. Army Africa and U.S. Air Forces Africa designed a mass casualty scenario that exercised the Defense Force's response capabilities and its interoperability with civilian first-responders. The exercise assisted the Swazi ministries of Health and Defense in jointly examining their emergency response plans and procedures. MEDFLAG 09 helped improve Swaziland's capacity to support future regional AU or UN PKO missions, while highlighting our support for this region of the continent.
Pandemic Response Program Because infectious disease outbreaks have the potential to rapidly become global crises, U.S. Africa Command works with African partner countries, the interagency, international organizations, and NGOs to build partner military capacity to mitigate the effects of a pandemic. Our efforts are reinforced with three years of funding from USAID, which cooperates with the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and other partner organizations in African countries.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Program
U.S. Africa Command's military HIV/AIDS program is aimed at mitigating the impacts of the disease on African military readiness. The program includes activities that help prevent the escalation of HIV/AIDS infection rates within African security forces, and provide care and treatment for the service members and families infected or affected by the disease. DOD activities that support African militaries' fight against HIV/AIDS now reach 39 African countries. During the first half of FY09, U.S. Africa Command's programs reached more than 117,000 African troops and family members with prevention messages, and provided counseling and testing services for 114,430 service members and their families. In addition, 111 senior military leaders have been trained on HIV/AIDS policies, and 2,396 peer educators and 517 health care workers have received HIV/AIDs training. More than 19,000 individuals are on antiretroviral treatment as a result of these collaborative efforts. The fight against HIV/AIDs in Africa is having an impact. Recently, a leader of a southern African country remarked that, three years ago, he was conducting burials everyday for an HIV related death; however, today he conducts one burial every eight to ten days.
SHARED ACCORD, Benin
When possible, we integrate civil-military operations into our exercises. SHARED ACCORD is one example. Conducted by U.S. MARFORAF, SHARED ACCORD's primary purpose is to train for peacekeeping and peace support operations, and the exercise successfully integrated two Beninese Infantry Companies with two Marine Corps Infantry Companies. An additional component of the exercise was a Medical/Dental Civic Action Program, which treated 7,370 patients during visits to three villages throughout an eight day period. A separate Veterinary Civic Action Program treated 92,410 animals while visiting seven villages during the same period. An exercise-related construction project to increase the Beninese capacity to conduct peacekeeper training at the Bembereke Peace Keeping Training Center was also completed.
U.S AFRICA COMMAND COMPONENT AND SUBORDINATE COMMANDS
U.S. Africa Command has four component commands, one sub-unified command, and the Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa. Our components are newly established and have inherited legacy efforts that they must mold to fit the Command's strategy. U.S. Africa Command's components and subordinate commands are the primary implementers of our programs and activities on the continent. Since our components have no assigned forces, we rely on the DOD Request for Forces process for the resources necessary to support our engagements in Africa.
U.S. Army Africa (USARAF)
On 1 October 2009, the Secretary of the Army designated U.S. Army Africa as the Army Service Component Command (ASCC) to U.S. Africa Command. USARAF will be fully operational capable (FOC) as an ASCC in FY12, and has doubled in size during the last 15 months. USARAF is heavily involved in the professional development of African land forces, which remain the dominant military force in most African states. USARAF's goal is to help transform our partners' land forces into contributors to peace and stability, with the capabilities and capacities required to accomplish their missions in support of legitimate authority.
USARAF continues to forge cooperative relationships and enduring partnerships that contribute to self-sustaining African security capacity. Key to USARAF's success is collaborating with both military and non-military partners. USARAF is fostering new partnerships and enhancing existing ones, to include partnerships with other USG agencies.
USARAF sponsored NATURAL FIRE, the largest exercise on the continent last year. It brought together U.S. forces from Europe and the United States to join with forces from five African states in a Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief exercise in Uganda.
U.S. Naval Forces, Africa (NAVAF)
NAVAF's primary mission is to improve the maritime security capability and capacity of our African partners. Beyond APS, law enforcement operations, and Theater Security Cooperation activities, NAVAF is working to enhance maritime security by focusing on the development of maritime domain awareness, trained professionals, maritime infrastructure, response capabilities, regional integration, and a comprehensive approach for planning and execution. These capabilities will improve maritime security and contribute to development and stability by allowing our partners to take advantage of the resources in their exclusive economic zones.
NAVAF, located in Naples, Italy, supports the creation of an environment where all African countries take a proactive interest in their own maritime security and in the overall security of the region. NAVAF utilizes maritime engagement activities to build trust, mutual cooperation, and respect in order to protect U.S. interests, reduce demand for U.S. resources, and ensure reliable and open access to ports, territorial waters, and other resources required for conducting sustained maritime operations.
U.S. Air Forces, Africa (AFAFRICA/17AF)
The 17th Air Force is the Air Force component to U.S. Africa Command. AFAFRICA continues its growth in capacity to command and control air forces in Africa for the purpose of conducting security engagement and operations, and to promote development, air safety, and security.
AFAFRICA is organized into an Air Force Forces (AFFOR) staff and the 617th Air and Space Operations Center (AOC). AFAFRICA's AFFOR staff reached FOC on 1 October 2009. The 617th AOC is expected to achieve FOC on 1 June 2010. The AOC provides continuous air command and control capability for all theater security cooperation exercise and engagement activities and crisis response operations such as foreign humanitarian assistance and non-combatant evacuation operations. Eventually, the AOC will provide a common operating picture of all air and space missions over the continent. Located at Ramstein Air Base, Germany, the 300-person command is administratively assigned to the United States Air Forces Europe for DOD funding support. AFAFRICA answers directly to U.S. Africa Command for operational assignments and joint support.
One of AFAFRICA's key programs is the Air Domain Safety and Security (ADSS) program, which is a long-term Air Force program of record with FY10 funding of $2.6 million. Funding is projected to grow to $3.1 million in Fiscal Year 2011. AFAFRICA will expand ADSS significantly in 2010, by utilizing general purpose air forces and working together with USG departments and agencies and other partners to develop African capacity to provide regional air safety and security solutions to the civil and military air domains. Discussions with Rwanda, Uganda, Nigeria and Ghana are underway, and will lay the foundation for a common regional air picture.
U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Africa (MARFORAF)
MARFORAF, located in Stuttgart, Germany, conducts operations, exercises, training, and security cooperation activities throughout the AOR. In 2009, MARFORAF participated in 15 ACOTA missions aimed at improving partners' capabilities to provide logistical support, employ military police, and exercise command and control of deployed forces. As the executive agent for the Non-Lethal Weapons program, MARFORAF conducted a very successful capabilities exercise attended by eleven African countries. This exercise highlighted a wide range of weapons that can limit the escalation of force and increase a tactical commander's ability to control a situation short of lethal force.