Continuing our article last month on Operation Just Cause, after a failed military coup against Panamanian military leader, Manuel Noriega, the United States military, including 7th Infantry Division, invaded Panama. Noriega sought and was given refuge in the Vatican nunciature (embassy) in Panama City, where he remained for 10 days while a U.S. Army psychological warfare team blasted rock music at the building. Noriega finally surrendered to the United States on January 3, 1990, and was then transported to Miami, where he was arraigned on a host of criminal charges.
Curious about how music from the likes of Guns 'N Roses, Van Halen (ironically, using their song "Panama"), and others broke the dictator? Read ARSOF History's account at: