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Addendum E - Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN)

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It became clear to us by 2004 that we were not properly organized to meet the rotational demands of sustaining a deployed force of about 150,000 Soldiers. Our institutional systems were designed to support a pre-September 11th Army that deployed for smaller, shorter duration missions.

In 2006, the Army established a rotational readiness model, called Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN), which is designed to effectively and efficiently generate trained and ready forces for combatant commanders at sustainable rotational levels for our forces. It is also designed to provide ready contingency forces.

ARFORGEN ensures that every deploying unit is the best led, trained, and equipped force possible prior to mission execution. It is a structured process generating Active Component (AC) and Reserve Components (RC) forces that progressively increases unit readiness over time. Operational requirements focus the ARFORGEN process to prioritize and synchronize institutional functions (recruit, organize, man, equip, train, sustain, mobilize, and deploy). ARFORGEN is a dynamic, cyclic process where the coordination of schedules, resources, and readiness assessments are critical to producing capabilities to meet Joint mission requirements.

We are executing ARFORGEN today and estimate that it will take us to the end of 2011 to mature ARFORGEN Army-wide.

The ARFORGEN model relies on continuous access to our RC forces at a level of 50,000 to 70,000 Soldiers mobilized per year. As demand decreases, mobilization of RC forces could be reduced, but not eliminated.

Modularity: To meet the requirements of current operations and anticipated future missions, the operating forces in all components of the Army are restructuring into a modular force design. Modular force transformation has shifted the Army from large, fixed formations (Divisions and Corps) to a modular Brigade-centric force (Brigade Combat Teams, Functional Support Brigades, and Multi-Functional Support Brigades). The transformation to a modular structure allows the Army to cycle brigades through ARFORGEN in a predictable manner since all brigades share a standardized, interchangeable structure that allows them to backfill similarly organized brigades on the battlefield.

ARFORGEN Planning Process: The Army examines global force demands and assesses which of its forces are available across multiple years. It then focuses units against future missions as early as possible and task organizes them as part of a modular expeditionary force tailored to Joint requirements. The Army utilizes the ARFORGEN synchronization process to adjust forces as operational requirements mature over time. As part of the process, Army units flow through three force pools: Reset, Train-Ready, and Available:

Reset: Focuses on recovery from deployment and sets conditions for Soldiers and units to train for their next anticipated or assigned mission. It involves programs to restore Soldiers, their Families, units, and equipment to pre-deployment levels. Fifteen months between missions is the minimum dwell to provide a 6-month reset period (1 year for RC).

Train-Ready: Restores training readiness levels. Units conduct individual and collective training to increase readiness and capability levels as quickly as possible within resource availability. Currently, units in “dwell” (time between deployments) for 18 months or less (AC) and 36 months (RC) focus on the skills and capabilities required for their irregular warfare mission. Units in dwell greater than 18 months (AC) and 36 months (RC) also train on core (conventional) tasks, in addition to the skills required for their next assigned mission. Units from the Train-Ready force pool can be deployed to execute missions during “surge” conditions.

Available: Units enter the Available force pool based on senior commander approval of unit commander assessment or as directed to deploy or transition. Deployed units conduct mission operations as directed by the National Command Authority to implement the national defense strategy at home or abroad. If not deployed to conduct operational missions, units may conduct training or exercises with other services, government agencies, or forces from other nations.

Rotation Planning Goals: Regardless of the level of demand for forces, the Army must continue to generate forces in support of combatant commander identified requirements. The purpose of the rotation planning goals is to improve long-range strategic planning and support battle-focused training. Steady-state conditions include cumulative day-to-day activities, such as partner capacity building with our allies, peacetime military engagement required to defend the homeland, irregular operations, and the capability to conduct and win conventional campaigns to prevail in the war on terror. Surge conditions are those requiring forces to support combatant commanders operations beyond programmed levels. These requirements include the capability to wage two nearly simultaneous conventional campaigns or one conventional campaign if already engaged in a large-scale, long-duration irregular campaign.

ARFORGEN rotation planning goals are reflected in ratios. For deploying AC units, the ratio is the amount of time deployed or Boots on the Ground (BOG) time to the amount of time not deployed or Dwell time. The ratio is referred to as BOG:Dwell. For deploying RC units, the ratio is measured as time mobilized to time not mobilized (Mob:Demob). The Army’s rotation planning goals while in steady-state and surge security postures for AC and RC are shown below:

Security Posture
Steady-State Conditions
Surge Conditions
AC Rotation Goals
(Example: 9 months deployed and 27 months training in a 3 year cycle)
(Example: 1 year deployed and 2 years training in a 3 year cycle)
RC Rotation Goals
(Example: 1 year
mobilized and 5 years demobilized in a 6 year cycle)
(Example: 1 year
mobilized and 4 years demobilized in a 5 year cycle)

During steady-state conditions, the rotation planning goals for AC and RC are 1:3 and 1:5. In surge conditions, the rotation planning goals for AC and RC are 1:2 and 1:4 respectively. The demand for forces directly influences the length of both BOG and Dwell. These surge and steady-state planning goals highlight the flexibility of the ARFORGEN process and its ability to respond to demand.

Maturing ARFORGEN: Because of competing demands for people, equipment, and time to train, our Soldiers and their Families have operated under prolonged and increased levels of stress. The Army is currently conducting a series of Reset Pilots. The test for Fiscal Year (FY) 08 implements the Reset model on 13 redeploying Army units: 8 AC, 2 ARNG, and 3 USAR units. In FY 09, HQDA expanded the test to 19 units: 13 AC, 3 ARNG, and 3 USAR units. The Reset Pilots will be used to inform how Army institutional processes need to adjust to implement Reset. The Army has already realized a number of significant lessons from execution of the FY 08 Reset Pilot. As a result, HQDA has directed that a number of “best business practices” be applied to all Army units that return 15 January 2009 and later.

The demand for our Army’s forces will remain high for years to come. Fully resourcing the Army to reset the force as soon as possible will increase strategic depth, decrease times units are not ready to deploy, and increase the Army’s capability to surge to meet requirements in support of the National Security Strategy in this era of persistent conflict. ARFORGEN allows the Army to meet strategic requirements, prepare for full spectrum operations, and preserve the All-Volunteer Force for today and the future.


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