Information Papers

Red Team Education and Training

What is it?
Red Teaming allows Commanders to fully and independently explore alternatives in plans, operations, concepts, organizations, and capabilities in the context of the operational environment and from the perspectives of our partners, adversaries, and others. It is a function executed by trained and educated officers, senior warrant officers, senior non-commissioned officers, and Civilians to enhance staff planning and improve decision making in today's dynamic and uncertain environment.

What has the Army done?
The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) established the University of Foreign Military and Cultural Studies (UFMCS) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, to provide the educational and training foundation for the fielding of a force-wide Red Team capability. The curriculum is designed to enable Red Teams to support decision making during planning and operations by identifying potential weaknesses, vulnerabilities, and unseen opportunities; anticipate and account for the perceptions of partners, adversaries, and others in our planning; and conduct independent and unbiased critical reviews and analyses of such items as concepts and experiments.

What continued efforts does the Army have planned for the future?
The Army and TRADOC will continue to institutionalize the concept of Red Teaming by adding Red Teams to existing force structure, adding the concept to doctrine, refining techniques and procedures, and continuing formal UFMCS-conducted education and training programs at Fort Leavenworth and at unit locations.
The UFMCS has recommended that teams or trained personnel be added to every echelon of command from the brigade combat team through Army Headquarters. Based on this recommendation, TRADOC has approved the addition of a Red Team to division and corps headquarters. Beginning in 2008, we anticipate that two officers assigned to the brigade combat team Headquarters will receive the Red Team additional skill identifier and associated training at UFMCS.

The concept of Red Teaming will be included in updates to key Army planning, operations, and intelligence doctrinal manuals as a key enabler.

The UFMCS will continue to develop and refine best practices, techniques, and procedures and to share these by means of an established reach-back capability. This reach-back capability not only provides access to subject matter experts and databases, but also serves as a means to exchange lessons learned and information among Red Teams.

In 2008, the UFMCS is expected to reach full operational capability to meet the educational and training requirements to fill requirements for the Army's operating force. Yearly, two sessions of the 18-week Red Team leader course, taught at the graduate level, will be conducted for the Army, other services, and Joint organizations. To meet the needs of deploying units, the UFMCS offers a quarterly nine-week course for personnel in deploying units. Additionally, a six-week Red Team member course has been added.
Based on the needs of units and organizations, the UFMCS has and will continue to conduct focused mobile training in support of the Joint community, service schools, and Army operational forces.

Why is this important to the Army?
Operations supporting the Global War on Terrorism and analysis of future complex operational environments confirm that the Army requires a capability within its units to aid the Commander and staff to identify and quickly adapt to new and unanticipated challenges and opportunities.

Historically, the services, government, and industry have employed some form of Red Teaming; however, there has not been a formal educational or training program nor common Red Teaming doctrine, procedures, methodologies, or framework in the past.
Graduates of the UFMCS will enhance mission planning by helping the staff to look at problems differently; to account for the perspective of the adversary, multinational partners, and others; and to frame alternative strategies. Effective Red Teaming helps ensure unit planning and operational staffs avoid “group think,” tunnel vision, cultural missteps, and mirror imaging. Red Teams will challenge the staffs’ planning assumptions and assessment systems, help the staff account for the complexity and relationships of the key variables found in the operational environment, identify the consequences of proposed actions, and provide timely critical insights to enable better decisions during planning and operations.