Addendum A (Provide Relevant and Ready Landpower for the 21st Century Security Environment)

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Since 9-11

circleSoldiers helped to overthrow two terrorist regimes, rescue two nations from oppression, enable vital elections, train and equip Iraqi and Afghan security forces, and liberate over 50 million people.

circleMore than 360,000 Army National Guard (ARNG);167,000 United States Army Reserve (USAR); and 498,000 Active Component (AC) Soldiers supported Combatant Commanders in Iraq, Afghanistan, Guantanamo Bay, the Balkans, the Sinai, and elsewhere.

circle More than 150,000 ARNG,USAR, and AC Soldiers helped to secure the homeland by providing security augmentation for key assets, airports, special events, and Air Force bases.

circleBegan 51 of 70 planned Brigade Combat Team (BCT) modular conversions; 31 of these 51 conversions completed.  Completed 131 of the over 200 planned Multi-Functional and Functional Support Brigade conversions.

circleSignificantly increased depot output to refurbish and reset vehicles and equipment for future deployments.

circleMore than 52,800 Soldiers from all components, supported by a diverse range of Army Civilians and Army aviation, transportation, military police, medical, and other units, provided hurricane relief support (including support for Katrina and Rita).

circleSoldiers also deployed to South Asia and Southwest Asia to provide tsunami and earthquake relief.

circleInitiated $2.2 billion contract to procure 368 Armed Reconnaissance HelicoptersMajor Acquisition Programs: Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter
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– the Army’s first new manned helicopter acquisition since 1983.


circleCompleted conversion of 13 AC BCTs; initiated conversion of an additional 13 BCTs (4 AC, 9 ARNG).  Completed conversion of 19 Multi-Functional and functional Support Brigades (4 AC, 12 ARNG, 3 USAR).

circleCreated an Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) Integration and Synchronization Office to improve quick reaction capabilities and optimize ISR support to current Global War on Terror (GWOT) operations.

circleIntegrated space technology to guide munitions, track forces, protect against fratricide, and stream real-time battlefield video.

circleContinued the transformation of Army Prepositioned Stocks (APS)Building Army Prepositioned Stocks
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 of equipment, ammunition, and general support items worldwide to support brigade combat team deployments.

circleDeveloped and fielded an unprecedented capability to identify individuals through an Automated Biometric Identification System.Army Leads Biometrics Integration in DoD as Executive Agent
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circleDeveloped and fielded the first operational headquarters to perform Weapons of Mass DestructionCombating Weapons of Mass Destruction
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elimination missions at the Joint Task Force level.

circleFielded unprecedented Intelligence fusion and analysis capability to 11 brigades and 73 battalions deployed in support of GWOT.

We are improving our capabilities to prevail in the war on terror and sustain all of our global commitments.  While fighting, we are:

Support Current Global Operations with Relevant and Ready Landpower

The Army is transforming and modernizing to build a more capable and relevant force for the 21st Century, while fully engaged in the war on terror and sustaining the range of our global commitments.  The combined effects of our transformation and modernization are improving our readiness to deal with traditional, irregular, catastrophic and disruptive challenges, as a vital member of the Joint Force.

Modular conversion is the main effort of our transformation.  To sustain a steadily increasing demand for military forces, we are building a  modular force centered on Brigade Combat Teams as the basic building block of our fighting capability.  Our modular conversionModular Force Conversion
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 of active and reserve components is designed to create brigade based modules able to “plug into” joint and coalition task forces in expeditionary and campaign settings. These forces will be better organized to accept advanced new capabilities and technology in order to meet the demands of the current war, sustain other global commitments, establish the organizational structure needed to accelerate modernization, and support a new global basing posture that will rely more heavily on rotational presence. 

Our plan is creating a rotational pool of 76 BCTs: 48 in the active component and 28 in the Army National Guard.  These BCTs are organized into one of three standard designs:  Infantry, Heavy, or Stryker.  We will support these BCTs with approximately 225 Support Brigades.  Our BCTs require the capabilities of our Support Brigades to accomplish the missions they are assigned.  Our Support Brigades also provide essential capabilities to other Services, as well as to civil authorities in homeland defense missions, which include consequence management and disaster relief.

Our Support Brigades are organized into two categories:  Multi-functional Support Brigades and Functional Support Brigades. Multi-functional brigades perform operational roles including:  Combat Aviation, Combat Support (Maneuver Enhancement), Sustainment, Fires, and Battlefield Surveillance. Functional brigades perform broad support roles on a theater-wide basis including:  Air Defense, Engineer, Chemical, Military Police, Signal, Medical, Logistics, and Intelligence.

Like our theater commands, our corps and division-level operational command posts and headquarters, Support Brigades are also converting to modular designs.  They will be trained, manned, and equipped to work directly for each of these headquarters without augmentation of people or equipment.

We are improving the readiness of our reserve forces that are making vital contributions on a daily basis – and have transitioned them from a strategic reserve to an operational force as our global commitments have increased.  We are also working to improve access to these forces in order to support our strategic requirements.  Strength reporting, educational opportunities and special skills training opportunities have been improved by reducing overstructure. These improvements, coupled with modular conversion, are enhancing the Army’s overall ability to provide ready forces and capabilities to the Combatant Commanders and to civil authorities in a timely manner.

In addition, to make best use of our resources, we are both rebalancing and redistributing our forces.  We are rebalancing to create the right mix of high demand units and to assign Soldiers with critical and high demand skills in each of our active and reserve components.  At the same time, we are redistributing Soldiers to create the right mix between our Operating Force and our Generating Force.

The combined effect of rebalancing, redistributing, and increasing our Operating Force is improving our overall effectiveness. We are improving our ability to provide trained Soldiers in cohesive formations to the Combatant Commanders and to support civil authoritiesDefense Support to Civil Authorities
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, while reducing stress on Soldiers and families.

To support global operations while transforming, we are preparing our forces for war – or resetting them – as quickly and efficiently as we can. Our Reset ProgramReset
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 links other Army programs together through replacement, repair, and recapitalization.  This program is restoring units returning from war to required levels of readiness to prepare them for future missions.  As we reset our units, we are simultaneously converting many of them to their new modular designs.  Several of these units have already returned to theaters of war in their new configurations.

The Army’s readiness model, Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN), is used to manage the force and ensure the ability to support demands for Army forces.  ARFORGEN sequences activities for all active and reserve Army units to include:

To sustain global commitments, we will transition units through a progression of three sequential readiness pools:  RESET and TRAIN(recovering from deployments, resetting equipment and other activities), READY (eligible for deployment and exercises), and AVAILABLE (immediately available for world-wide employment).

ARFORGEN establishes a basis to schedule deployments on an Army-wide scale.  Our planning objective is to be able to generate a continuous output of trained and ready forces that will be ready to support one operational deployment and two years at home station for the active component.  The planning objective for involuntary mobilization of the Army National Guard and Army Reserve units is one year mobilized and five years demobilized.  This goal will be achievable only after completion of all projected modular conversions. 

Current levels of operational demand—to include the Balkans, the Sinai, and other global commitments in addition to Iraq and Afghanistan— exceed the levels which had been projected. To meet sustained global demand for Army forces, we require timely implementation of policies intended to ensure recurrent, assured, and predictable access to our Army National Guard and our Army Reserve units.  Without full access to our reserve component units, our active component units will continue to deploy for a year, return home for a year, and then redeploy-a situation which is creating unsustainable levels of stress on the force. 

When fully operational, ARFORGEN will enable the development of a schedule to bring units to  full readiness – with people, equipment, and training – before they are scheduled to deploy.  It is also designed to enable the following critical objectives:

Build a Campaign-Quality Modular Force with Joint and Expeditionary Capabilities for Today and Tomorrow

The war on terror and the changing paradigm for maintaining forward presence have created both the necessity and the opportunity to accelerate change from the current to the future force.  Our conversion to a modular force – one that is carefully balanced between active and reserve component BCTs, Support Brigades, and division and corps-level operational command posts – is well under way.  This conversion is transforming the Army into a more lethal, flexible, deployable, and sustainable force.  It is enabling us to shift the center of gravity of our capabilities (previously focused primarily on traditional challenges) to better address the full spectrum of traditional, irregular, disruptive, and catastrophic challenges. 

The 21st Century necessitates a highly versatile Army that can handle a diverse array of operations and missions. The combination of transformation, to build a modular Army, and continuous modernization, to develop Future Combat Systems (FCS)Future Combat System Fiscal Year 2008 Program Adjustment
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 new aviation systems, and other advanced technologies and systems, is methodically producing the future force.
FCS is a system of interconnected weapons, communications, and intelligence systems (which include sensors as well as manned and unmanned ground and aerial vehicles, improved linkages to national and theater level surveillance and imagery systems) that will be immediately responsive to Soldiers and commanders.  When fielded, FCS will provide a persistent, ubiquitous intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capability.  In addition, it will create an integrated, distributed network to leverage the value of intelligence and facilitate the rapid employment of all weapons system available.

FCS is the Army’s first major step toward modernization in several decades and is our most critical investment.  FCS, and Army modernization as a whole, is incorporating lessons learned from current operations, at home and abroad. 

The capabilities provided by FCS will directly benefit all U.S. ground forces, including the Marine Corps and the Special Operations Forces from all Services.  These capabilities will fundamentally alter how we deploy, employ, and sustain our ground forces.  They will greatly improve our ability to put “boots on the ground,” to stabilize contested zones, and to support joint, interagency and multinational teams.

FCS capabilities are providing Soldiers with significant tactical and operational advantages which are dramatically improving our ability to address the dilemma of irregular warfare and to conduct operations to prevent and to counter insurgencies. 

FCS provides enhanced awareness of friendly and enemy situations and improves the ability to operate across larger areas with fewer Soldiers.  FCS enables the ability to defeat weaponry which includes Improvised Explosive Devices, anti-tank weapons, and small arms.  Because of improved understanding of battlefield conditions and better protection, Soldiers will be able to operate from extended distances, remote locations, and the protection of their vehicles for longer periods which will result in fewer casualties.  They will also benefit from greater precision and responsiveness of their weapons, which will improve their ability to operate in urban terrain and other complex environments.

Soldier with Sun over helmet

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By “spinning-out” FCS and advanced technologies into our formations – as soon as the capabilities are ready – we are strengthening our current forces and working to stay ahead of enemies who are constantly adapting their tactics and methods.  Through “spin outs,” we are working to improve both our current and future capabilities.

When BCTs are fielded with the full complement of FCS systems, these units will contain more fighting vehicles and more infantry squads than the units we field today.  By leveraging technologies, and the power of the Network, the number of Soldiers in an FCS BCT will be significantly fewer than current formations, decreasing in size from about 3,850 today to 3,200 in the future.  These BCTs will have double the amount of critical infantry Soldiers, enabling these formations to operate far more effectively in irregular environments.  Soldiers and commanders will enjoy far greater ability to see and to act first – ahead of their adversaries – while dealing with the full spectrum of challenges they will face.

Compelling Needs

circleFull, timely, and predictable funding of the Army’s Fiscal Year 2008 President’s Budget request and supplemental appropriations are required to build readiness needed to execute the National Defense Strategy and to pay for the costs of war.

circleResource the Army’s requirements for resetting the force. Full funding is needed to restore units—a process with both materiel and human dimensions—to required levels of readiness to execute projected operational deployments, while remaining prepared for likely future contingencies and homeland defense missions.

circleSupport the Army’s effort to grow our operational forces and restructure our Operating and Generating Forces across our active and reserve components, to meet global commitments now and in the future.

circleFully fund continuous modernization of the current force through Future Combat Systems and key supporting programs, including: increasing Soldier protection, sustaining development of advanced technologies, transforming LandWarNet, transitioning the Joint Network Node to Warrior Information Network—Tactical (WIN-T)Warfighter Information Network—Tactical
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, and rebalancing active and reserve component units and skills.

circleAccelerate momentum established in transforming the force through modular conversions scheduled in in Fiscal Years 2007 and 2008, and support plans to grow our Operating Force, to meet current and future requirements:

dashContinue or complete conversion of 17 Brigade Combat Teams (1 AC, 16 ARNG)

dashContinue or complete conversion of 27 Multi-functional or Functional Support Brigades (12 AC, 8 ARNG, 7 USAR)

dashBegin conversion of 16 Brigade Combat Teams (4 AC, 12 ARNG) and 2 ARNG  Headquarters.


FCS will produce numerous advantages in tactical and operational capability.  It will:

Eventually, as key technologies are fielded across the force, battalions will be capable of similar levels of self-sufficiency – dramatically increasing the capability and effectiveness of U.S. ground and special operations forces at lower levels than today.

Despite the benefits FCS will provide, budget cuts and overall reductions to the scope of this initiative will delay the development and delivery of this much needed capability to our Soldiers and the Nation.

The future force comprises more than just FCS-enabled, modular BCTs.  It includes all of the improvements in strategic agility found in the formations above the BCT and efficiencies that will result from implementing Base Realignment and ClosureBase Realignment and Closure Decisions For the Army
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 and Global Defense Posture RealignmentGlobal Force Posture Realignment
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 decisions. These decisions will enable the repositioning of forces to better respond to emerging strategic challenges.  We will also be able to execute much of our enduring overseas presence mission with units that deploy from the United States for overseas duty, during rotational windows scheduled and managed as part of the ARFORGEN model. 

For both rotational duties and for contingencies, our units will rely on strategic mobility provided by airlift, sealift, and prepositioned equipmentBuilding Army Prepositioned Stocks
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. To increase both strategic agility and efficiency, we began modernizing our prepositioned equipment sets to the extent that resources allow. However, current operational demands require us to use the prepositioned stocks to provide forces today. 

We lack sufficient funding to realign our pre-positioned equipment sets to support the global footprint we need to achieve. Future agility and responsiveness will depend on establishing the right balance among forward stationed forces, prepositioned equipment, and strategic mobility.  In addition, our need to rapidly move forces and equipment from home station and between theaters of operation will become an increasingly important determinant of our ability to execute the National Defense Strategy.

Another key aspect of our plan for our future force is standardization.  We are reducing the number of variants of our heavy combat vehicle fleet.  This initiative will promote standardization, decrease the number of systems that we must train active and reserve Soldiers to operate, and reduce maintenance costs.    

Our commitment to being a learning, adaptive organization is evident in our efforts to apply lessons learned from our operations both at home and abroad. 

We are working to develop a future force that is better able to fight as part of joint and coalition formations - in either protracted campaigns or in expeditionary operationsExpeditionary Capabilities
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 and to serve the Nation – by examining how to best accomplish traditional and nontraditional missions such as:

The combination of transformation and modernization, reinforced by our commitment to learn and adapt to traditional and nontraditional missions of this type, and continued improvements in training Soldiers, developing leaders, and improving facilities is producing relevant and ready landpower for the 21st Century.

The following initiatives (found at Addendum G) reinforce our efforts to Provide Relevant and Ready Landpower:

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