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Addendum B: Progress Report on Strategic Initiatives Identified in 2005 Army Posture Statement


In last year's Army Posture Statement, the Army leadership described 20 supporting initiatives aligned within the four overarching, interrelated strategies needed to accomplish the Army Mission. These initiatives guide the Army through the transformation of the operating force and the streamlining of our business processes. During the year, the Secretary of the Army added a 21st initiative, Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Implementation Plan, due to its importance to mission success. An update on each of these strategic initiatives is provided in this addendum.



Strategy: Providing Relevant and Ready Landpower to Support the Combatant Commanders

Our first overarching strategy supports the Combatant Commanders and the joint force, in order to sustain the full range of global commitments. The initiatives supporting this strategy include:

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1. Initiative: Building a Campaign-Quality Force with Joint and Expeditionary Capabilities

The contemporary and projected operational environments dictate that the Army must develop the necessary capabilities to rapidly deploy to uncertain and potentially austere locations. Often these deployments will require the Army to conduct its mission on arrival in support of campaigns for a duration not always readily predictable. Thus, our preeminent challenge continues to be reconciling the expeditionary qualities of agility, responsiveness and ruthless efficiency, with the staying power inherent in a campaign quality Army. This challenge will require the Army to change while we are simultaneously fighting the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT).

The Army Force Generation Model (ARFORGEN) will allow us to routinely sustain a commitment of up to 19 Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs) and provide us the surge capability of up to 38 BCTs on short notice. The development and fielding of the Future Combat Systems (FCS) capabilities, and the conversion to FCS-enabled and FCS-equipped BCTs, will provide the Joint Force Commander (JFC) with a more expeditionary force than exists in today’s Army.

The development of intelligence systems and intelligence training and manning are key components of the Army's contribution to the Joint Force Commander. The implementation of the Joint Intelligence Operations Capability significantly improved intelligence sharing and collaboration at all levels, including improvements to the intelligence gathering and sharing capabilities of dismounted Soldiers on the battlefield. Revitalization of Human Intelligence (HUMINT) programs, acceleration of the Distributed Common Ground System Army (DCGS-A), and other programs to improve military intelligence skills and capabilities are also significantly improving current Army capabilities.

Army logistics is transforming to provide better support to expeditionary forces. Key logistics transformation improvements include a joint capable operational headquarters; dedicated communications; unity of effort through single logistics point-of-contact in theater; a more flexible modular force structure; dedicated force reception capability; improved sustainment platforms and a common logistics operating picture through a system know as the Integrated Logistics Architecture, a component of which is the Single Army Logistics Enterprise.

The Army manages a number of key programs that are critical components of the Homeland Defense efforts. Ground Based Integrated Air Defense, Information Sharing, and Chemical-Biological-Radiological-Nuclear-High Yield Explosives (CBRNE) incident responsiveness, combined with the establishment of a fully functional Army Service Component Command in U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM) are significantly improving our capabilities in Homeland Defense and support for the NORTHCOM Commander.

The Army is addressing CBRNE Consequence Management (CBRNE-CM) efforts by using both active component and reserve component forces, in a variety of locations, to best respond to potential CBRNE events of national significance.

Our ability to plan, prepare, and execute Stability Operations is a critical component of the Army's contribution to the Joint Force Commander. Adjustments in our institutional systems, our training, and our capabilities will reduce many of the historical problems associated with stability operations and reconstruction efforts. The Army continues interagency coordination to facilitate our effort in these areas. Also, the restructuring of our forces into BCTs and other modularized organizations will provide the best force to accomplish the diverse and unpredictable missions associated with Stability Operations.

We are investigating and, in conjunction with the joint community, developing a variety of inter-and intra-theater force projection enhancements to improve strategic responsiveness and agility. Most noteworthy have been our efforts to join the Navy and Marine Corps in developing both intra- and inter-theater versions of high speed, shallow draft connectors capable of deploying ground forces, in combat configuration, directly to the Joint Operating Area without dependence of developed seaport infrastructure. We continue to investigate the development of an Afloat Forward Staging Base capability to conduct vertical maneuver from a sea based platform. This effort, in conjunction with our progress towards developing a heavy-lift vertical take-off and landing aircraft, could enable an unprecedented capability to conduct vertical maneuver of mounted forces throughout the future battlespace. Both of these emerging, potential future capabilities were incorporated in a very successful seabasing gap analysis conducted by a joint Army-Marine Corps Integrated Product Team.

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2. Initiative: Enhancing Joint Interdependence

Rapidly evolving an Army at war to simultaneously meet the added challenges of the projected joint operational environment will require an unprecedented degree of joint cooperation. To gain the right force structure mix - one that is capable of meeting the breadth, depth and longevity of this challenge - will require the Services to achieve joint interdependence, the final step towards achieving complete joint effectiveness where all the potential synergies of joint capabilities are realized and additional capacity is created to help reduce the stress currently placed on ground forces.

Along this path, we have substantially reduced the number of artillery and air defense units within the force structure, recognizing that our sister Services, as part of a joint team, can provide similar capabilities to our ground forces. We have reinvested resources from this divestiture into additional BCTs and other forms of land power that provide the joint force with capabilities complementary to those of other Services.

Another significant accomplishment is the Army's considerable effort in support of the development of a single joint logistics command for command and control of integrated logistics operations in support of a regional combatant commander or JFC. This joint effort, led by US Joint Forces Command, is earmarked for prototype in the US Forces Korea area of responsibility, with initial operating capability commencing in March 2006.

The Army conducts its transformation activities in terms of capabilities the Army can build to support the JFC. We increased our training courses for Human Intelligence (HUMINT) specialists, resulting in more than 900 trained HUMINT personnel to support the Combatant Commanders. Our modular formations will operate in joint, multinational and interagency environments, and these formations are designed to enhance joint concepts for battle command, fires and effects, force projection, intelligence, air and missile defense, and logistics. We are working with the other Services to improve our ability to dominate across the entire range of military operations.

The Army’s development efforts are nested within joint efforts, including close collaboration between concept development and experimentation programs. As an example, the Army Concept Strategy is nested and flows from the Joint Operations Concepts (JOpsC):

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3. Initiative: Resetting the Force

Major combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan are placing tremendous demands on Soldiers and equipment. Amidst the constant demands of war, equipment is aging far more rapidly than projected. The reset program is designed to address the effects of combat stress on equipment and to prepare the equipment and Soldiers for future missions. In 2005, the 4th Infantry Division and the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed the reset program. The 2nd Cavalry Regiment, the 10th Mountain Division, the 1st Armored Division, the 76th Infantry Brigade (Indiana), the 30th Infantry Brigade (North Carolina), and the 82nd Airborne Division are currently in various stages of the reset program. In addition to resetting units, our equipment recapitalization effort is showing significant progress. The Army goal for 2005 was to recapitalize 6,500 tracked and wheeled vehicles. We exceeded this goal by a significant margin, funding the recapitalization of a total of 7,050 tracked and wheeled vehicles.

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4. Initiative: Converting To A Brigade Based Modular Force

Modular conversion is a critical component of our campaign-quality force. Modular conversion allows the Army to be more responsive to Combatant Commander’s requirements and provides increased capabilities to the joint force. These capabilities include scalable headquarters that are capable of operating as either a Joint Task Force (JTF) headquarters or as a Coalition JTF headquarters without significant external augmentation. Conversion to the modular organizations started in 2004 and continues today. These conversions touch all aspects of the Army, including force structure, training methodologies and the global footprint of our forces.

The Army Modular Force initiative represents the Army’s transition from a division-centric structure to one that is centered on the BCT. The conversion increases the number of active brigades from 33 to 42 and the total number of maneuver brigades (active and reserve) in the rotational pool to 70. Modular conversion standardizes brigade formations across the active and reserve force by organizing BCTs with the manning, equipment, and structure that they will use in operating environments. Modular conversion will increase the number of BCTs available for deployments and, in comparison to current force capabilities, will increase the capabilities of each BCT. In combination with ARFORGEN, lifecycle manning, and other initiatives, these conversions will reduce stress on the force by establishing more predictable rotation cycles. Additionally, modular BCTs provide the organizational framework for receiving the advanced technologies that will be progressively fielded across the force as soon as they become available.

Brigade Combat Team Conversions to Modular Configuration

In 2005, the Army goal was to convert eleven brigades and one Stryker brigade into modular BCTs. We achieved this goal by converting four brigades from the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), three brigades from the 10th Mountain Division, four brigades from 4th Infantry Division, and the 172nd Stryker (SBCT). These BCTs are trained, equipped, and ready, and will support Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) or Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in 2006.

Brigade Combat Team Conversions in Calendar Year 2005

2005 Goal
2005 Actual
BCT Conversions Completed
SBCT Conversions Completed
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5. Initiative: Rebalancing Active and Reserve Component Units and Skills

To meet the demands of the new security environment, the Army is rebalancing the active and reserve components. Increased capabilities in Military Police, Military Intelligence, Special Forces, Chemical, Civil Affairs, and Psychological Operations forces are critical to our global war on terrorism efforts and to our long-term support of Combatant Commanders. This rebalance will decrease the necessity for early mobilization of reserve component units during a rapid response operation and will eliminate unnecessary structure in the reserve components by 2011. These efforts will optimize the use of available manpower and will equitably distribute unit deployments in support of global commitments.

We met our goal in 2005 to adjust selected Military Occupational Specialty positions by more than 26,000 positions and we are currently on track to complete the rebalance of over 100,000 positions by 2011. Additionally, the Army continues to identify and convert positions in the Institutional Army from military to civilian, enabling us to fill increased requirements for Soldiers in the Operational Army. During 2005, the Army met its goal by converting 7,604 military positions to civilian.

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6. Initiative: Stabilizing Soldiers and Units to Enhance Cohesion and Predictability

To improve unit cohesion and unit readiness--and to reduce turbulence in units and uncertainty for families--the Army adopted a Force Stabilization policy. Consisting of a Lifecycle Management (LM) component and a Stabilization component, this policy essentially changes how we implement our unit manning requirements. Under the LM process, the Army reduces personnel turbulence and improves cohesiveness within the BCT by assigning active component Soldiers within a specific BCT for approximately 36 months. We also synchronize Soldier assignments with the unit operational cycles under ARFORGEN, allowing a Soldier to remain in the same BCT throughout the Reset/Train, Ready, and Available phases of the ARFORGEN process. This LM process reduces or eliminates the need for Stop Loss and Stop Move policies, but it does not reduce the number of moves for a Soldier and it does not reduce the transient portion of the individual Soldier account.

Stabilization, the second component of Force Stabilization, is intended to reduce the number of moves and to reduce the transient portion of the individual Soldier account. Stabilization will eventually reduce personnel turbulence, but for the next few years personnel turbulence will remain high as the Army converts structure above the BCTs and units are moved to new locations pursuant to Integrated Global Positioning and Basing Strategy (IGPBS) and Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) decisions.

LM implementation began with a SBCT in Alaska and has been implemented in eleven BCTs to date. LM for the remaining BCTs, except for those forward-stationed BCTs in Korea and Europe and our Evaluation BCT (EBCT), will be completed over the next four years, with a planned completion date by September 2010. We will continue to synchronize LM implementation, by time and by installation, while concurrently maintaining our ability to support current operations and the deployment rotation requirements of ARFORGEN.

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7. Initiative: Leveraging Army Science and Technology

The goal of the Army Science and Technology (S&T) program is to achieve transformational capabilities that will enable the future force while pursuing opportunities to enhance current force capabilities. The Soldier remains the centerpiece of all Army S&T investments. The FCS, now in the Systems Development and Demonstration phase, remain the core of our drive to the Army’s future modular force.

Army S&T is providing limited quantities of advanced technology applications to our Soldiers currently deployed to fight the GWOT. Soldiers are currently benefiting from technologies that emerged from past investments, like the lighter weight ballistic protection that developed into the outer tactical vest. We are exploiting transition opportunities by accelerating mature technologies from ongoing S&T efforts, like the electronic warfare technology program used to defeat radio controlled improvised explosive devices (IEDs). We are also leveraging the expertise of our scientists and engineers to develop quick solutions to problems encountered during current operations, such as designing add-on armor survivability kits for high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicles (HMMWVs) deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

We continue to make significant progress in maturing the sensor and kill mechanism technologies that enable active protection systems (APS). APS will significantly increase the survivability of lightweight platforms. We are funding both close-in protection and standoff protection systems to defeat chemical energy munitions and kinetic energy munitions. In the past year, we successfully demonstrated the ability to defeat rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) fired from very close ranges. We also continue to pursue multiple technology solutions to identify and defeat IEDs from standoff ranges. Our work is synchronized across the Department of Defense through close coordination with the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO).

Army S&T is developing technologies for a family of unmanned and robotic capabilities that include unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles, unattended sensors, and intelligent munitions. The capabilities of these systems will be modular in design for rapid adaptation to changes in mission and are critical to the FCS. Once equipped, the FCS-equipped BCT will be the first Army organization designed to integrate unmanned systems and manned platforms into ground maneuver combat operations. As we move forward, we will maintain a balance to ensure enabling technologies are adequately protected from compromise and that which may cause a loss in technological lead.

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8. Initiative: Spiraling Future Combat Systems Capabilities into the Current Force

The FCS program is a holistic approach designed to produce a family of manned and unmanned systems that are fully networked, information based, and integrated across the Army as part of the joint team. FCS efforts are dedicated to efficiently develop and field improved technology, to transform processes and our organizations, and to improve the combat effectiveness of the current force and the future force.

The FCS program uses evolutionary acquisition processes to develop, field, and upgrade FCS components throughout their lifecycle. The Army will accelerate fielding of select FCS capabilities as they become available (called spin outs) to reduce operational risk to the current force. The modular formations, currently enabled by FCS capabilities, will ensure Soldiers and leaders have the capabilities needed to win decisively, when and where the nation calls.

The Army restructured the FCS program to accelerate the introduction of battle command, the Army network, and other crucial capabilities to the current force--establishing FCS-enabled BCTs--while continuing to build the initial FCS-equipped BCT. Accelerating the fielding of battle command capabilities to establish a more capable and reliable network will support the Department of Defense (DoD) goal to bring the joint community closer to a common operational picture. The network brings improved situational awareness, which will allow our Soldiers to see, understand, and react before our enemies can.

These battle command and network systems supplied tactical internet capabilities for four divisions and three BCTs in OIF and OEF during 2005. In 2006, we will continue to equip the forces with these systems, thereby enhancing mission effectiveness and Soldier survivability. Every acquisition or improvement to an existing process within FCS has a detailed development plan and milestones, and the Milestone Decision Authority must review progress and approve further development at each key decision gate. In addition, Program Managers report the cost, schedule, and performance variance from the plan for each system on a monthly basis, facilitating greater awareness of progress, problems, and efficiency.

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9. Initiative: Restructuring Army Aviation

In February 2004, we canceled the Comanche helicopter program. Reallocation of Comanche funding allowed the Army to modularize, modernize, and improve force protection for aviation units, to include accelerating the fielding of Aircraft Survivability Equipment. Modernizing the fleet will reduce maintenance costs, increase survivability, improve readiness rates, and will ensure that our aviation effort meets joint requirements for feasibility and affordability. Key components of the aviation modernization plan include resetting aircraft as they return from Iraq and Afghanistan, producing more MH-47Gs for the special operations community, converting aviation brigades to support modularization and ARFORGEN, and recapitalizing UH-60As (Blackhawk Utility Helicopters) and CH-47Ds (Chinook Cargo Helicopter). This program is on track and is already paying dividends. Due to decreased reset costs, the Army was able to complete more aircraft than originally planned and initial recapitalization data indicates that recapitalized aircraft have a 20 percent higher mission capable rate.

 Restructuring Army Aviation

2005 Goal
2005 Actual
# of Aircraft Reset (Mix of OEF/OIF Returning Aircraft)
MH-47G Produced
Combat Aviation Brigades (CAB)
UH-60A Recapitalization
CH-47D Recapitalization

In support of current operations, we began acquisition of Aircraft Survivability Equipment. To date, all aircraft deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom and to Operation Enduring Freedom are equipped with the best available equipment for the specific aircraft type, design, and series. We will also install the Common Missile Warning System/Improved Countermeasure Dispenser (CMWS/ICMD) on all deployed aircraft by the end of September 2006.

We are concurrently accelerating acquisition of several new systems: The Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter (ARH) – a rapidly deployable aircraft -- is designed to collect actionable combat information to enable joint/combined air-ground maneuver. The Army is developing the Light Utility Helicopter (LUH) to conduct light general support in permissive environments and Homeland Security. The Extended Range/Multi-Purpose UAV (ER/MP) is an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) capable of serving as a communications relay and capable of conducting reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition and target attack missions. The Future Cargo Aircraft (FCA) is a rapidly deployable aircraft designed for Service-specific, Intra-theater, time-sensitive movement of high priority supplies, parts, and personnel.

More than 100 aviation units have been redesigned, restructured, or reorganized to transform Divisional and Corps Aviation Brigades to eleven active and eight Army National Guard Combat Aviation Brigades (CABs). The active component completed the conversion of the CABs for the 3rd and 4th Infantry Divisions, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), and the 10th Mountain Division to modular configuration. The aviation brigades of the 1st Cavalry Division, 25th Infantry Division, and the 82nd Airborne Division have begun conversion to modular configuration and will be complete in 2006. The remaining three active component CABs will complete modular conversion in 2007. To provide the manpower and equipment for these formations, the Army inactivated all aviation troops associated with the division cavalry units and two Aviation Brigades. We will inactivate two additional Aviation Brigades in 2006.

All of these efforts combine to keep Army Aviation both relevant to the current fight and ready to meet expected challenges of the future. By recapitalizing and modernizing our Aviation fleet, adapting our training to the current combat environment, and changing our organizations to remain in step with the Army’s modularization initiative, we maintain the ability to execute assigned missions in support of the Combatant Commanders.



Strategy: Training and Equipping Soldiers to Serve as Warriors and Growing Adaptive Leaders

Training and Equipping Soldiers to Serve as Warriors and Growing Adaptive Leaders is the second overarching strategy. The initiatives in this area include:

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10. Initiative: Reinforcing Our Centerpiece: Soldiers as Warriors

Human skills may change as technology and warfare demand greater versatility from our Soldiers. Regardless of how the tools of warfare improve, our Soldiers must utilize and exploit these tools to accomplish the mission. The associated concentration on institutional training, unit training, equipping, and readiness ensures that the Soldier will remain the ultimate combination of sensor and shooter.

Mental and physical toughness underpin the ethos embodied in the Soldier's Creed. This toughness must be developed within all Soldiers — without regard to their specialty, their unit, or their location on the battlefield. In 2005 the Army implemented the additional rigor and relevance directed by the Chief of Staff of the Army’s Warrior Ethos concept. The program of instruction in basic combat training increased the Soldier’s warfighting capability through enhanced training on 39 individual tasks (Warrior tasks) and nine battle drills. We are also integrating these same tasks into our leadership courses for noncommissioned officers and officers. Currently, the 39 Warrior tasks have also been incorporated into the Programs of Instruction (POI) for the Warrior Leader Course (formerly the Primary Leadership Development Course), the core curriculum of the Basic Noncommissioned Officer Course (BNCOC), and the Basic Officer Leader Course (BOLC). We also began implementation of the new officer education system in 2005 and created the Basic Officer Leader Course II (BOLC II) to focus on critical small unit leadership and tactics instruction for all newly commissioned officers. The pilot course for the BOLC II was completed in August 2005 and full implementation at two locations, Fort Benning and Fort Sill, will begin in January 2006. Finally, the Intermediate Level Education (ILE) program replaced the Command and General Staff Officer Course in August 2005, expanding the ability to educate 100 percent of the Army’s mid-grade officers while creating an increased focus on officers’ specific career paths.

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11. Initiative: Recruiting and Retaining Soldiers

In Fiscal Year 2005, 73,373 Soldiers answered the nation’s "Call To Duty" by enlisting in the Army. We achieved 92 percent of our Fiscal Year 2005 goal of 80,000 new Soldiers-- the first recruiting shortfall since 1999. The Army is beginning Fiscal Year 2006 with its smallest pool of recruits in the delayed entry program pipeline in more than two decades -- just twelve percent of our yearly target of 80,000 recruits.

We did not achieve the active component end-strength of 502,400 set by Congress, missing this requirement by 9,672 Soldiers. This end-strength level supports our plan to add active component combat brigades (from 33 BCTs to 42 BCTs by the end of Fiscal Year 2007) and provides flexibility while simultaneously remaining engaged in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). Several factors have contributed to the difficult recruiting environment. These include low unemployment, the GWOT, increased alternatives to military service, a lower youth propensity to serve, and a greater reluctance of parents and other influencers to recommend military service.

The selected reserve accession goal in 2005 was 91,487 Soldiers (63,002 Army National Guard (ARNG) and 22,175 U.S. Army Reserve (USAR)). The ARNG missed its accession goal in Fiscal Year 2005 by 12,783 Soldiers. The USAR also missed its accession goal by 2,775 Soldiers. Lower than expected accessions, coupled with normal attrition, caused the selected reserve to finish the year at more than 32,000 Soldiers below desired end-strength. Despite the end-strength shortfalls, both the ARNG and USAR have continued to sustain operations for both federal and civil authorities. The disaster relief support for Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita required more than 40,000 ARNG Soldiers deployed on state active duty status or on federal status.


Fiscal Year 2003 Actual
Fiscal Year 2004 Actual
Fiscal Year 2005 Goal
Fiscal Year 2005 Actual
Active Army
Army Reserve
Army National Guard

Performance Measure: Measures the number of Soldiers recruited during a given Fiscal Year against the published goals.

To mitigate the 2005 recruiting shortfalls, we increased our recruiting force by over 4,000 recruiters (increasing their numbers to 6,279 active, 1,774 USAR, and 5,100 ARNG recruiters). We also increased college fund grants to $70,000 for qualified active component applicants and increased the maximum enlistment bonus from $8,000 to $10,000 for reserve component, non-prior service accessions.

Another mitigating factor in easing the recruiting shortfall is the Army’s success in retaining Soldiers. In 2005, we exceeded our retention goal for all three components -- active Army, ARNG, and USAR. Our success in retention indicates that Soldiers believe in what they are doing and, once recruited, are inclined to stay. Additional bonus money was instrumental in capitalizing on this propensity to serve. For instance, a bonus of $15,000 was offered to any Soldier (all components) who reenlisted while deployed to Iraq, Kuwait, or Afghanistan.

Active and Reserve Component Retention

Fiscal Year 2003 Actual
Fiscal Year 2004 Actual
Fiscal Year 2005 Goal
Fiscal Year 2005 Actual
Active Army
Army Reserve
Army National Guard

Performance Measure: Measures the number of Soldiers reenlisted during a given Fiscal Year against the published goals.

The active Army retention goal in 2005 was 64,162 Soldiers. We not only met this goal, but reenlisted 9,500 more Soldiers than last year, achieving 108 percent of the retention mission. All 10 active divisions were above 100 percent of their retention missions, with the 3rd Infantry Division, which is currently in Iraq, finishing at 138 percent of their 2005 mission.

Active Component End-Strength

Fiscal Year 2003
Fiscal Year 2004
Fiscal Year 2005
Temporary Authority
percent Delta
+4.0 percent
+3.6 percent
-2.0 percent

Performance Measure: The number of Soldiers on active duty at the end of the year.

The USAR exceeded their goal by 237 Soldiers and closed the Fiscal Year at 102 percent of the 2005 retention mission by reenlisting 16,485 Soldiers. The ARNG closed out 2005 at 104 percent of the 2005 retention mission, exceeding their goal by over 1,200 Soldiers.

Selected Reserve (USAR and ARNG) End-Strength

Fiscal Year 2003
Fiscal Year 2004
Fiscal Year 2005
percent Delta
+1.4 percent
-1.4 percent
-5.9 percent

Performance Measure: The number of Soldiers in the USAR and ARNG at the end of the year.

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12. Initiative: Equipping Our Soldiers

The GWOT has introduced new requirements to protect and equip Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan. The most important programs to protect deployed combat troops are the Rapid Equipping Force (REF), Rapid Fielding Initiative (RFI) and the armored HMMWV effort. These programs have clear goals.

Rapid Equipping Force (REF) is an operational activity that rapidly provides combat commanders with cutting-edge solutions that increase lethality, improve force protection and enhance survivability. The REF works directly with operational commanders to find solutions to identified equipping requirements. REF accomplishes its mission by working in partnership with industry, academia, Army senior leaders, the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, the Army acquisition community, and the Army Test and Evaluation Command to meet immediate Warfighter needs. RFI is one of the most innovative, cost effective, and popular programs to ensure troops are properly equipped for the GWOT. The RFI equipment issued to Soldiers reflects the lessons learned during three years of fighting in complex environments and includes such items as optical sights for weapons, grappling hooks, door rams, fiber optic viewers, advanced ballistic helmets, hydration systems, ballistic goggles, knee and elbow pads, and an improved first aid kit. Initially providing 49 separate items of equipment to Soldiers and small units, focus groups from various combat and combat support units identified additional requirements, resulting in the current RFI list of 58 items of equipment. RFI fielding to the operational Army is ongoing and we completed fielding of RFI equipment to more than 519,000 Soldiers by the end of 2005. The RFI equipment issue is scheduled for completion by the end of September 2007.

Initiative: Equipping Soldiers

The production of up-armored HMMWVs, combined with upgrading the armor (add-on armor) on older HMMWVs and other wheeled vehicles, is an ongoing process. The Army goal is to provide a minimum of add-on armor protection for every vehicle required to leave operating bases. Add-on armor provides protection against small arms, IEDs, and mines.

The up-armoring process includes adding a protective turret shield around gunners, adding heavy doors with gun ports, armoring the front and rear quarter panels and the rocker panel beneath the door, installing ballistic window glass, bulletproofing the back of the vehicle seats, and installing other protections that are not readily visible. The armored doors feature new heavy-duty latches and have weather-stripping to keep out dust and sand. Eighty-eight percent of all HMMWVs are now up-armored and vehicles without a minimum of add-on armor protection are restricted to operating only within the confines of the military bases.

Our up-armoring efforts help protect Soldiers from Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), one of the main dangers to troops in Iraq. To defeat this threat, the Army now has over 20,000 counter-IED devices in theater. Additionally, all Soldiers and DoD civilians in theater are now equipped with Interceptor Body Armor (IBA), a protective system consisting of two modular components--an Outer Tactical Vest (OTV) and Small Arms Protective Inserts (SAPI).

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13. Initiative: Training Soldiers and Growing Adaptive Leaders

A balance of training and education is required to prepare Soldiers and leaders to perform their duties. Training prepares Soldiers and leaders to execute complex missions in accordance with the precepts and guidelines of established doctrine. Education prepares Soldiers and leaders to be adaptive in order to operate successfully in uncertain conditions. Supported by Army values, the Warrior Ethos, and the experiences obtained through training and combat, Soldiers and leaders at all levels continue to hone the skills required to win the war on terrorism. Changes in our officer training courses, our warrant officer training courses, and our non-commissioned officer training courses, combined with changes in our civilian education system and basic training systems, will ensure that our Soldiers and leaders remain ready in service to our nation.

Continuing our Soldier training programs and leader development courses is a critical component of the professional Army today. Refining the traditional courses has improved our effectiveness and our efficiency, and we continue to find new ways to improve our force. Improving our ability to adapt to the challenges associated with irregular tactics, especially in cultural awareness, language proficiency, and interagency operations is an ongoing focus in many of our educational institutions. Assignment of selected leaders to key positions within joint, interagency, multinational, and service organizations also serves to improve the capabilities and contributions of our Soldiers and leaders. Assignments of civilians to key positions formerly held by soldiers complement the institutional development of adaptive and multi-skilled civilian leaders.

The training challenges continue for Soldiers and leaders in the operating units. The Army trains the way it intends to fight, and the resource requirements necessary to maintain combat readiness are inextricably linked to armored vehicles and aircraft. These systems, manned by our Soldiers, are critical components of the combined arms strategy. Our operational tempo (OPTEMPO) strategy for ground vehicles and our aviation flying hour program facilitate our training strategy and directly affect the combat readiness of Army Soldiers. Maintaining our OPTEMPO mileage programs and our flying hour programs, combined with an appropriate mix of live, virtual, and constructive training--to include the use of training simulators to provide cost-effective, on-demand, combat training--will help ensure the readiness and capabilities of our Soldiers and leaders.

Ground and Air OPTEMPO (Active)

Fiscal Year 2002
Fiscal Year 2003
Fiscal Year 2004
Fiscal Year 2005 Goal
Fiscal Year 2005 Actual*
Ground OPTEMPO (Mileage)
Air OPTEMPO (Flight Hours)

Performance Measure Ground: Compare average miles per tank executed versus goal.

Performance Measure Air: Total monthly hours/crew OPTEMPO versus goal.

*Data as of September 2005 Monthly Army Performance Review – Fiscal Year 2004 data revised to reflect actual data.

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14. Initiative: Enhancing the Combat Training Centers

The Army continued major efforts to integrate lessons learned from all ongoing operations into its individual Soldier and collective training in 2005, resulting in a training regimen based on realistic missions and supporting activities. Training at the Combat Training Centers (CTCs) replicates the increased complexity of the current and future operational environment by incorporating key events into a training scenario in a controlled environment. Investment in the CTCs saves lives.

The CTCs continue to incorporate more role players--non-governmental actors, media representatives, paramilitary forces, police organizations, terrorists/criminals, and detainees--as an integral part of training. Information operations are addressed to ensure an understanding of the importance of individual and unit actions as they relate to the local populace and the media, and that Soldiers understand the impact of information on operations. Finally, the coalition military and security forces are replicated to ensure that the training unit understands the interactions required with these types of units and how to leverage that resource.

The CTCs continue to acquire and/or upgrade digital C4ISR capabilities needed to ensure appropriate training of digitized forces in the full employment of their advanced battle command and control systems.



Strategy: Attaining a Quality of Life and Well-Being for Our People that Matches the Quality of Their Service

The third overarching strategy is Attaining a Quality of Life for Soldiers and Their Families that Matches the Quality of Their Service. The Army’s initiatives in this area include:

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15. Initiative: Maintaining the Viability of the All-Volunteer Force

The All Volunteer Force began on June 30, 1973 and has since been a mainstay of the entire armed forces. The Gates Commission, appointed by President Nixon in 1970, reported "the military could entice enough volunteers to enlist by increasing pay, improving conditions of service and more vigorous recruiting." Maintaining the viability of this force is dependent on several factors. American citizens must remain convinced that the Army is a great place to serve. While Soldiers perform their duties to meet Army expectations, the Army, in turn, must provide an environment in which individual aspirations can be met. To concentrate on the challenges they face, Soldiers must understand the frequency and cycle of projected deployments. Likewise, they must believe that their families will be taken care of during their absence. Programs to encourage civilian employers' support to reserve component Soldiers, who comprise more than half the Army force, are required to recruit and retain a strong reserve component.

Our recruiting mission remains larger than all of the other Services combined. The Army aggressively adjusted resources to meet increased recruiting missions and to overcome the market effects of an improving economy, increased alternatives to youth, decreased propensity to enlist, effects of the Global War on Terrorism, and a decreased willingness of influencers to recommend military service. We are executing a full, diverse range of programs and activities that will help us to attract and retain the quality people we need to maintain a volunteer force during a time of war. These adjustments include increases in quick-ship enlistment bonuses, advertising, and the size of recruiting forces. It is of national interest to retain our dedicated Soldiers to sustain the overall viability of our All-Volunteer Army. The support of Congress and the American people is vital to this effort.

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16. Initiative: Caring For Army Families and Soldiers

The Army is aware that its well-being programs are inextricably tied to retention, and that we must continue to provide exceptional well-being programs and care for Soldiers, veterans, and family members. Providing for the well-being of the Army Family is a fundamental leadership obligation. Army Well-Being holistically integrates and continuously assesses services and programs which provide for the needs of its people and supports senior leaders in determining priorities in support of their Joint Warfighting human capabilities requirement. Consistent with that philosophy, Army Well-Being actively works across 59 Army functions, evaluating well-being and quality of life programs that support Soldiers, families and civilians. Senior leaders also have the capability to review programs in the well-being framework and to focus resources, measure success and identify emerging trends. This process ensures that Soldiers, families and civilians are offered an outstanding quality of life commensurate with their outstanding quality of service.

The Army is aware that its well-being programs are inextricably tied to retention, and that we must continue to provide exceptional well-being programs and care for Soldiers, veterans, and family members. An area of the utmost concern for Soldiers and families is a fully functional and safe place to live. The Army is on track to meet the 2007 adequacy goals (2008 overseas) at enduring installations by having programs and resources in place to eliminate inadequate housing through privatization, construction, and divestiture. The Army funded barracks to house 4,550 Soldiers at the 1 + 1 or equivalent standard. The Army’s privatization of housing effort ensures sustainment of adequate housing to meet contemporary standards for the long term. In 2005, the Army’s privatization projects met its goals by improving 4,272 housing units from inadequate to adequate (2,409 renovations, 1,863 new constructions). To date, the Army has privatized more than 57,000 units and in the coming years will privatize 23,000 more - over 90 percent of the U.S. inventory. Privatization also ensures long term sustainment of adequate housing that meets contemporary standards.



Strategy: Providing Infrastructure to Enable the Force to Fulfill its Strategic Roles and Missions

The Army’s fourth strategy is Providing Infrastructure to Enable the Force to Fulfill its Strategic Roles and Missions. Transformation of business, resourcing, and acquisition processes promotes the long-term health of the Army. The Army is aggressively working to streamline business processes and practices by taking advantage of industry innovation, outsourcing, and partnering. The initiatives in this area include:

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17. Initiative: Business Transformation

The Army is improving the process of resourcing the Combatant Commanders by substantially improving the Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution (PPBE) process. The goal is to commit the right resources into the stewardship of commanders when needed, seek ways to increase corporate resourcing flexibility, and increase near-term resourcing responsiveness for on-going operational requirements to support Combatant Commanders and an Army at war – today and in the future.

The intent of a redesigned PPBE process is to provide a more robust and responsive programming and financial management system for the force. The 2005 goal was to develop a transparent process oriented system that provided a method for conducting cross-functional coordination. The revised process allows all stakeholders the ability to evaluate tradeoffs and prioritize needs within available resources and constraints. We established a program budget assessment team to serve as a reviewing committee for all new and updated requirements. When complete, our PPBE process will provide users the ability to update needs and monitor the resourcing process continuously.

Through business transformation, the Army will synchronize the requirements generation process to support the Army’s strategy. The new process integrates and aligns the Army’s Strategy Map with the Army Posture Statement and The Army Plan (TAP). This integration and alignment provides a means to balance current and future demands. A feedback mechanism utilizing results oriented, objective performance metrics will be applied to continuously improve strategic performance and results. The end result is a process that provides a holistic view of Army requirements in order to make informed resource decisions.

Another major area of business transformation is initial implementation of the General Fund Enterprise Business System (GFEBS). The GFEBS provides the Army with an integrated financial management system that will provide web-based, online, real-time transaction and information capability, and will be accessible to all Army and DoD components. The GFEBS application will fulfill the requirements of the Federal Financial Management Improvement Act of 1996 and will be certified by the U.S. Army Audit Agency (USAAA). GFEBS will allow the Army to comply with the Chief Financial Officer Act of 1990 by improving performance, standardizing processes, reducing legacy stove-piped systems, and providing all levels of leadership with synchronized, reliable, relevant, and timely financial information. The 2005 goal for GFEBS was to award a contract so the Army could begin work. This contract was awarded in June 2005.

Reviewing our authority, responsibility, and accountability structure is also a key component of our business transformation efforts. Ensuring that the appropriate transformation command and control measures are in place, refining the requirements and acquisition processes, and restructuring organizations and their interrelationships will improve the overall readiness and discipline of the Army.

Finally, we must refine our communications effort to ensure that the relevance and direction of the Army is clearly understood. Ensuring that the Army has one consistent message will allow key leaders and decision makers to fully grasp the Army's plan, facilitating decisions and support that are based on a complete understanding of the Army's strategic direction.

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18. Initiative: Maintaining Our Installations as "Flagships of Readiness"

Installations are an essential component in maintaining the premier army in the world. They are the platforms from which we rapidly mobilize and deploy military power. Installations play a vital role in training the force and reconstituting the force upon return from deployment. Installations also provide deployed commanders with the ability to reach back for information and other support through advanced communications technology. Installations facilitate our transformation efforts and support the overall well-being of our Soldiers and their families.

Installations continue to face many challenges due to the demands of current operations. For example, to create or convert modular brigades, the Army needs new facilities. We must allocate construction funding for permanent facilities while meeting our 2005 base closure and permanent-stationing requirements. We are currently unable to meet the DoD goal for a facilities recapitalization rate of 67 years.

Installations serve as “Flagships of Readiness” by providing force reception stations and by serving as power projection platforms. These installations project-- by surface or air--the equipment and other resources needed to meet Combatant Commander’s Operational Plan requirements. To improve our projection platforms, we analyzed throughput capability of railcars and aerial ports of embarkation (APOEs) to measure the performance of these installations. In 2005, the goal was for installations to achieve 100 percent throughput capability for both railcars and APOEs. Deployment requirements and capabilities are being reexamined in light of the IGPBS, BRAC, and the Army Modular Force initiative.

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19. Initiative: Improving Global Force Posture

The Army has embraced DoD’s strategy for changing our global force posture as we realign capabilities to locations within the continental United States . The 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) Report highlighted the need for more agile, dispersed forces to promote U.S. interests and to better respond to challenges. In 2005 the Army developed a strategic rebasing plan that is synchronized with the demands and realities of the Global War on Terrorism.

For example, we allocated $103 million for renovation of facilities at Fort Carson for the 2nd Brigade of the 2nd Infantry Division’s move from Korea. Prior to this undertaking, Fort Carson only had sufficient barracks to adequately accommodate two maneuver brigades - the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment and the 3rd Brigade, 4th Infantry Division. When completed, this 2005 project will satisfy the unaccompanied housing requirement by providing an additional maneuver-brigade sized set of barracks that are in compliance with the DoD standard.

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20. Initiative: LandWarNet

LandWarNet is the Army’s portion of the global information grid, providing a jointly interoperable and integrated network, supporting commander-centric battle space communications. LandWarNet is a combination of infrastructure and services, and moves information through a seamless network that enables the management of warfighting and business information.

We examined the information, automation, and communication lessons learned from warfighter experiences such as Desert Storm ( Iraq ), Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation Iraqi Freedom and determined operational concepts had changed significantly and warfighter expectations for mobility and offensive orientation had outgrown the scope of the current communications capabilities. Improved systems are necessary to implement the Army’s tactical portion of the Global Information Grid (GIG) architecture for the transforming Army force.

We teamed with the Navy, the Marine Corps, and the Air Force to develop a family of revolutionary software-programmable tactical radios that will provide the warfighter with voice, data and video communications, as well as interoperability across the joint battlespace. The solution for interoperability is an all service radio and a new wideband, networked waveform with the ability to provide mobile networked-connectivity across the battlespace while providing compatibility with the current waveforms in use by the DoD today.

We have also started the process to plan, develop, implement, operate, and sustain a global information infrastructure. The infrastructure will provide seamless and secure interoperability, network services, and end-to-end connectivity. Our plan will also provide oversight for development, equipping, and training of Signal forces. This architecture will be in synchronization with the Joint Staff plan and will be the Army portion of one virtual network that provides transport and services across the joint force.

LandWarNet will unify Army networks, allowing units from the tactical level to the Combatant Commander-level to view the same picture of the battle space. Under the LandWarNet umbrella, Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (WIN-T) will wirelessly connect vehicles with each other and with distant units, command centers, and satellite networks. The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) will extend the network to individual Soldiers and sensors, greatly enhancing dismounted battle command on the move. WIN-T and JTRS will give Soldiers increased situational awareness and information depth that currently resides only in units at brigade level and above. WIN-T will replace the Cold War-era Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE) and JTRS will replace current single-channel, waveform-specific radios with a software programmable family of systems (SINCGARS). While WIN-T is under development, the Army is fielding the Joint Network Node (JNN) as an interim communications network solution until the WIN-T matures. WIN-T will enable commanders and leaders to use automated, collaborative decision-support tools to plan, synchronize and virtually rehearse missions, on the move, regardless of where they are in the battle space. Commanders will have the ability to maintain the same mobility as their Soldiers while concurrently maintaining uninterrupted contact with the joint force.

Finally, LandWarNet encompasses the full range of technological solutions by spinning mature capabilities--such as JNN--into the modular force while maintaining doctrine, organizations, and training to support full-spectrum operations.

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21. Initiative: BRAC Implementation Plan

Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) 2005 provides the Army with the authority to dispose of excess infrastructure. This will allow us to optimize the operational capacity of warfighting capability and efficiency and will enhance opportunities for joint activities. This also allows us to reallocate resources to other high priority requirements. BRAC will provide the Army with a comprehensive review of its installation inventory and align base structure with post-Cold War force structure.

The Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Army recommended 13 major Army base closures and approximately 50 Army base realignments. BRAC recommendations became law on November 9, 2005 and all recommendations must be completed by September 14, 2011. The BRAC decisions facilitate our goals to reduce costs, generate savings, optimize military value, advance the Army Modular Force initiative, accommodate overseas rebasing, facilitate rebalancing of AC and RC forces, and contribute to joint operations.

Army BRAC recommendations are linked inextricably to the Army Modular Force initiative. These recommendations provide the optimum infrastructure to stand up, train, support and rapidly deploy our BCTs in support of global requirements against potential adversaries who threaten our security.



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