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To support current global operations and prevail in the war on terrorism, we are increasing the quality and the effectiveness of our essential fighting units, the Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs). We are forming a rotational pool of 70 BCTs that will allow us to sustain global commitments, surge forces for unforeseen contingencies, and reduce stress on Soldiers and equipment. We are

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SINCE 9-11


also creating the right mix of Support Brigades to ensure that our Soldiers receive the logistical, engineering, intelligence, protection, aviation, and communications capabilities they will need to support the Combatant Commanders.

We are rebalancing the force by placing the right Soldiers with the right skills into our jobs and organizations in greatest demand. At the same time, we are stabilizing Soldiers, to keep them with their units longer, to improve teamwork and reduce stress on families caused by frequent moves between posts. We are maintaining momentum in transforming and modernizing our formations – through modular conversion, pursuit of future combat systems, and fielding other advanced technologies. These complementary initiatives will ensure that our Soldiers are well prepared to operate in campaign and expeditionary settings with our joint and coalition partners.


To sustain a steadily increasing demand for military forces, we are building a modular force Modular Force
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centered on BCTs. Our modular conversion Modular Conversion
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across the active and reserve components is designed to meet the demands of the current war, sustain other global commitments, establish the organizational structure needed to accelerate modernization, and support a new global basing posture that will rely more heavily on rotational presence.

Our plan will create a rotational pool of 70 BCTs: 42 in the active component and 28 in the Army National Guard. These BCTs will be organized into one of three standard designs: Infantry, Heavy, or Stryker. We will support these BCTs with more than 200 active and reserve Support Brigades. These Support Brigades will enable the BCTs to accomplish a broad range of missions. They will also provide essential capabilities to support civil authorities in homeland defense missions, including consequence management and disaster relief.

Our Support Brigades are organized into two categories: Multi-functional Support Brigades and Functional Support Brigades. The multi-

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functional brigades will perform operational roles including: Combat Aviation, Combat Support (Maneuver Enhancement), Sustainment, Fires, and Battlefield Surveillance. The functional brigades will perform broad support roles on a theater-wide basis including: Air Defense, Engineer, Explosive Ordnance Disposal, Military Police, Signal, and others.

Like our theater commands, our corps and divisionlevel operational command posts and headquarters, Support Brigades will also be converted to modular designs. They will be trained, manned, and equipped to work directly for each of these headquarters without augmentation of people or equipment.

We are also improving the readiness of our reserve forces that are making vital contributions on a daily basis – and have transitioned from a strategic to an operational reserve as our global commitments have increased. We are working to improve our access to these forces to support our strategic requirements. Access will be enabled by reducing reserve component overstructure and managing reserve Soldiers in ways that will improve assigned strength in each of our units, while increasing opportunities for education and special skills training. These improvements, coupled with modular conversion, will improve the Army’s overall ability to provide ready forces and capabilities to the Combatant Commanders and to civil authorities in a timely manner.

In addition, to make best use of our resources, we are both rebalancing and redistributing our forces. We are rebalancing to create the right mix of units in high demand, and Soldiers with critical and high demand skills in each of our active and reserve components. At the same time, we are redistributing Soldiers to create the right mix between our operational forces and our institutional structures.

The combined effect of rebalancing, redistributing, and growing the Operational Army is increasing our overall effectiveness. We are improving our ability to provide trained Soldiers in cohesive formations to the Combatant Commanders and to support civil authorities, while reducing stress on Soldiers and families.

To support global operations while transforming, we are preparing our forces for war – or resetting them – as quickly and efficiently as we can. Our reset program Reset
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is restoring units returning from

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war to required levels of readiness to prepare them for future missions. As we reset our units, we are simultaneously converting them to their new modular designs. We have reset more than 20 major units. Many of these units have already returned to theaters of war in their new configurations.

The Army Plan introduces a new readiness model, ARFORGENArmy Force Generation Model – ARFORGEN
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, to manage the force and ensure the ability to support demands for Army forces. ARFORGEN sequences activities for all active and reserve Army units to include:

To sustain global commitments, we will transition units through a progression of three sequential readiness pools: Reset and Train, Ready (eligible for deployment and exercises), and Available (immediately available for world-wide employment). This model establishes a plan for scheduled deployment on an Army-wide basis. Through semi-annual synchronization conferences, we will organize our forces into three Expeditionary Force Packages:

Our goal is to be able to generate a continuous output of trained and ready forces that will support one operational deployment in three years for the active component, and one operational deployment in six years for the reserve component. At lower levels of demand, this model may allow the Army to support one operational deployment in four years for active forces. This new model establishes the basis to bring all units to a full state of readiness – with people, equipment, and training – before they are scheduled to deploy. It allows the Army to accomplish the following critical objectives:



The war on terrorism and the changing paradigm for maintaining forward presence have created both the necessity and the opportunity to accelerate change from the current to the future force. Our conversion to a modular force – one that is carefully balanced between active and reserve component BCTs, Support Brigades, and division and corpslevel operational command posts – is well under way. This conversion is transforming the Army into a more lethal, flexible, deployable, and sustainable force. It is enabling us to shift the center of gravity

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of our capabilities (previously focused primarily on traditional challenges) to better address the full spectrum of traditional, irregular, disruptive, and catastrophic challenges.


The combination of transformation to build a modular Army and continuous modernization, to field Future Combat Systems (FCS) Future Combat Systems
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and other advanced technologies, is methodically producing the future force.

FCS is our primary modernization program and most critical investment. This program will pioneer the next generation of warfighting capabilities which will improve Soldiers’ ability to find and fight their enemies. FCS includes a new class of manned and unmanned air and ground vehicles, interconnected by a modern network to better support and sustain Soldiers.

The program is currently in the developmental phase. The first unit fully equipped with manned ground vehicles is projected to achieve initial capability by 2014 (and will be able to fight by 2017). When we complete our intended fielding plan in 2025, new manned ground vehicles Future Combat Systems Manned Ground Vehicle Development
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will replace 40 to 50-year old tactical vehicles designed in the 1970s to defeat Cold War enemies.

A significant contribution of FCS is that it will immediately place advanced technologies into the hands of our Soldiers that will increase their capability and provide greater protection. By integrating advanced technologies into our formations in four “spin outs” that will occur in roughly two-year increments, we will strengthen our current forces in distinct ways:

When whole BCTs are fielded with the full complement of FCS systems, these units will be able to generate significantly more capability. These FCS-equipped BCTs will contain more fighting

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Compelling Needs

vehicles and more infantry squads than the units we field today. They will be able to generate more capability and control more area with significantly fewer Soldiers than today. They will require less fuel, supplies, and other logistical support.

These new capabilities will directly benefit all U.S. ground forces, including the Marine Corps and the Special Operations Forces from all Services. They will fundamentally alter how we deploy, employ, and sustain our ground forces. These capabilities will improve our capability to put “boots on the ground,” to stabilize contested zones, and to support joint and interagency teams.

The future force comprises more than just FCS–equipped, modular BCTs. It includes all of the improvements in strategic agility and efficiencies that will result from implementing BRAC and IGPBS decisions. These decisions will enable the repositioning of forces to better respond to emerging challenges. We will also be able to execute much of our enduring overseas presence mission with units that deploy from the United States for overseas duty, during rotational windows scheduled and managed as part of the ARFORGEN model.

For both rotational duties and for contingencies, our units will rely on pre-positioned equipment. To increase both strategic agility and efficiency, we are modernizing our pre-positioned equipment sets. We are also reducing the number of variants of our heavy combat vehicle fleet from four to two. This initiative will promote standardization, reduce the number of systems that we must train active and reserve Soldiers to operate, and reduce maintenance costs.

Our commitment to being a learning, adaptive organization is evident in our efforts to apply lessons learned from our operations both at home and abroad. We are working to develop a future force that is better able to fight as part of joint and coalition formations in either protracted campaigns or in expeditionary operations and to serve the Nation – by examining how to best accomplish traditional and nontraditional missions through five major areas of focus:

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The combination of transformation and modernization, reinforced by initiatives of this type, and continued improvements in training Soldiers, developing leaders, and improving facilities is producing relevant and ready landpower for the 21st century.

Supporting Initiatives (Addendum C): The areas of focus discussed above are reinforced by six initiatives: