Core Competencies
Our Army has two core competencies, supported by a set of essential and enduring capabilities. These core competencies are: (1) training and equipping Soldiers and growing leaders; and (2) providing relevant and ready land-power capability to the Combatant Commanders as part of the Joint Force. Additionally, our Army's senior leadership has established immediate focus areas and issued specific guidance for planning, preparation and execution of actions aimed at rapidly effecting necessary transformation in support of these core competencies. See Addendum I (available at for more information on the Army's focus areas.

Train and Equip Soldiers and Grow Leaders

Our Army prepares every Soldier to be a warrior. Our training replicates the stark realities of the battlefield in order to condition Soldiers to react instinctively in combat. Such training is essential to building Soldiers' confidence in themselves, their equipment, their leaders, and their fellow Soldiers. Constant training in weaponry and field craft, and a continuous immersion in the warrior culture, give Soldiers the skills they need to succeed on the battlefield. Mental and physical toughness are paramount to the development of the warrior ethos and apply to all Soldiers from private to general. Every Soldier is called upon to be a leader.

The Soldier

The American Soldier remains the centerpiece of our combat systems and formations and is indispensable to the Joint Team. Adaptive, confident and competent Soldiers, infused with the Army's values and warrior culture, fight wars and win the peace. As a warrior, every Soldier must be prepared to engage the enemy in close combat; the modern battlefield has no safe areas. Our Army trains our Soldiers to that standard, without regard to their specialty or unit. The Soldier -- fierce, disciplined, well-trained, well-led and well-equipped -- ultimately represents and enables the capabilities our Army provides to the Joint Force and the Nation.

Our Soldiers are bright, honest, dedicated and totally committed to the mission. All share common values, a creed and a warrior ethos. Our Army defines selfless service as putting the welfare of our Nation, Army and subordi-nates before your own. Soldiers join the Army to serve. Most Americans do not fully realize the personal sacrifices these Soldiers and their families endure. However, our Soldiers know that they have done their part to secure our Nation's freedoms and to maintain the American way of life.

Our Soldiers' Creed captures the warrior ethos and outlines the professional attitudes and beliefs that characterize our American Soldier. The warrior ethos is about the refusal to accept failure and the conviction that military service is much more than just another job. It defines who Soldiers are and what Soldiers do. It is linked to our long-standing Army Values, and determination to do what is right and do it with pride.

Recruiting and Retaining a High-Quality Volunteer Force

All of our Soldiers are warriors whose actions have strategic impact. Because we are at war and will be for the foreseeable future, we must recruit Soldiers who have the warrior ethos already ingrained in their character, who seek to serve our Nation, and who will have the endurance and commitment to stay the course of the conflict. We must recruit and retain Soldiers who are confident, adaptive and competent to handle the full complexity of 21st century warfare.

We will continue to bring the highest quality Soldier into the force. All newly enlisted Soldiers are high school graduates (diploma or equivalent) and 24 percent have some college. These young Americans, who believe service to our Nation is paramount, make our success possible. They display a willingness to stand up and make a difference.

Our recruiting and retention efforts continue to be successful. The active Army met its recruiting and retention goals in fiscal year 2003 (FY03). The Army National Guard exceeded its retention goals for FY03 and simultaneously met its end strength objectives. The Army Reserve met its recruiting goals and all but one retention target in FY03. Most importantly, all components sustained their end-strength requirements.

We do not know yet the effect the high operational pace of recent months will have on our recruiting and retention in FY04 and future years. We must carefully monitor recruiting and retention trends and adequately resource our successful recruiting and retention initiatives. Incentives such as the Enlistment Bonus Program, The Army College Fund and the Loan Repayment Program, have successfully enabled the Army to execute precision recruiting in FY03. Our Special Forces Candidate "Off the Street" initiative continues to attract highly motivated and qualified warriors. Significantly, Selective Reenlistment Bonuses, such as the Present Duty Assignment Bonus and the Theater Selective Reenlistment Bonus, which are intended to enhance unit stability, have helped us realize our retention successes. For more information on recruiting, see Addendum C.

Civilian Component Enhances Our Capabilities

Army civilians are an integral and vital part of our Army team. They are essential to the readiness of our Army at war and our ability to sustain operations. Our civilian employees share our Army values. They are smart, resourceful and totally committed to supporting our Soldiers and our Army to do whatever it takes to meet the challenges that come our way. These dedicated civilians perform critical, mission-essential duties in support of every functional facet of combat support and combat service support, both at home and abroad. Army civilians serve alongside Soldiers to provide the critical skills necessary to sustain combat systems and weaponry. They work in 54 countries in more than 550 different occupations. In FY03, nearly 2,000 Army civilians deployed to Southwest Asia in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). They have the education, skills and experience to accomplish the mission while ensuring continuity of operations for all commanders.

Realistic Training - Essential to Mission Success

Tough, realistic training ensures that our Soldiers and units maintain readiness and relevance as critical members of the Joint Force. Our Army's combined-arms training strategy, including an appropriate mix of live, virtual, and constructive training, determines the resource requirements to maintain the combat readiness of our troops. We revised our training ammunition standards to allow Combat Support and Combat Service Support units to conduct live fire exercises under conditions similar to those they might encounter in combat.

The Army's OPTEMPO budget is among its top priorities. Our leadership is committed to fully executing the Active and Reserve Component ground and air OPTEMPO training strategies, which include actual miles driven and hours flown, as well as virtual miles associated with using simulators. The flying hour program is funded to achieve a historic execution level of live flying hours per aircrew per month. If units exceed the historic execution level, our Army will increase their funding. Thus far this year, OPTEMPO execution reports show units exceeding their programmed miles driven and hours flown. These are the units that are aggressively preparing for deployments to OIF and OEF, as well as the units who recently have returned and are preparing for future operations. Our combined arms training strategy is working and sustaining our warfighting readiness. We see the results every day in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Joint and Expeditionary

Our Army is the dominant ground component of the Joint Team and provides the Joint Force Commander a campaign quality force with unique and complementary capabilities. We are vital and indispensable members of the Joint Team first and are a Service second. We must remain aware that our Army always conducts operations -- offensive, defensive, stability and support -- in a joint and expeditionary context. Acting in concert with air and naval power, decisive land power creates a synergy that produces a Joint Force with abilities far exceeding the sum of the individual service components. Our Army can: support civil authorities at home and abroad; provide expeditionary forces at the right time and the right place; reassure our allies and multinational partners; deter adversaries and, should deterrence fail, decisively defeat the enemy; and win the peace through post-conflict operations, in concert with interagency and multinational efforts. Our Army must continually examine the capabilities resident in and required by the Joint Force. We will concentrate our energies and resources on those attributes which our Army is best suited to provide to the Joint Force. Our Army will arrive on the battlefield as a campaign-quality force fulfilling the requirements of the Joint Force Commander -- lethal, agile, mobile, strategically responsive, and fully interoperable with other components within the interagency and multinational context.

Train and Educate Army Members of the Joint Force

Our Army is taking action across a broad front to make jointness an integral part of our culture by including this concept in our education and training programs. We have always produced leaders with the right mix of unit experience, training, and education. As we look to the future, we know that, to meet our current and future leadership requirements and those of the Joint Force, we must redesign aspects of our Army's training and leader development programs to include lessons learned from current operations. Our objectives are to increase our ability to think and act jointly and to provide our Soldiers with the latest and most relevant techniques, procedures and equipment that will make them successful on the battlefield. Additionally, the changes acknowledge the current and projected pace of operations and deployments. As a result, we will be better prepared for the current and future strategic environments.

Maintaining a ready Current Force today and achieving a transformed Future Force tomorrow requires a shift in the way units train for joint operations. Our Army's Training Transformation Initiative (TTI), which supports the June 2003 Defense Department Training Transformation Implementation Plan, provides dynamic, capabilities-based training and mission rehearsal in a joint context.

Leader Development -- "Train for Certainty, Educate for Uncertainty"

Leader development is an essential part of our Army's core competencies and the lifeblood of our profession. It is the deliberate, progressive and continuous process that develops our Soldiers and civilians into competent, confident, self-aware, adaptive and decisive leaders. They emerge prepared for the challenges of 21st century combined arms, joint, multinational and interagency operations.

Army leaders at all levels bear responsibility for America's Soldiers and accomplishing the mission, whatever it may be. The range of missions and their complexity continue to grow, presenting our leaders with even greater challenges than previously experienced. The evolving strategic environment, the gravity of our strategic responsibilities, and the broad range of tasks that the Army performs require us to review, and periodically to refocus, the way we educate, train and grow professional warfighters.

We have a training and leader development system that is unrivaled in the world. Our professional military education prepared our officers and noncommissioned officers to fight and win in Iraq and Afghanistan. We will continue to develop our leaders with the right mix of operational assignments and training and education opportunities that meet the current and future requirements of the Army and Joint Force. Our leader training focuses on how to think, not what to think. We will maintain our investment in the future by sustaining the highest quality leader training and education for our Army.

Combat Training Center (CTC)/Battle Command Training Program (BCTP)

The CTC program is a primary culture driver for our Army. Additionally, our CTCs are a primary enabler of, and full participant in, the Joint National Training Capability. The CTCs develop self-aware and adaptive leaders and Soldiers and ready units for full spectrum, joint, interagency and multinational operations. CTCs continuously integrate operational lessons learned into the training. Our Army enhances the training experience offered by our CTCs (National Training Center in California, Joint Readiness Training Center in Louisiana, Combat Maneuver Training Center in Germany and Battle Command Training Program based in Kansas) by increasing the focus on development of capabilities essential to joint operations. Leader training and development during CTC exercises hone the Joint and Expeditionary Mindset and promote our Army's warrior culture.

Provide Relevant and Ready Land Power Capabilities to the Combatant Commander and the Joint Team

To meet global commitments across the full spectrum of military operations, our Army has mobilized more than 164,000 Reserve Component Soldiers. More than 325,000 American Soldiers are serving overseas and more than 23,000 Soldiers are supporting operations within the United States. This high operating tempo is no longer an exception. Sustained operations and deployments will be the norm for our Army forces supporting multiple and simultaneous shaping and stability operations around the globe. At the same time, we will continue to contribute to Joint Force execution of major combat operations, homeland security missions and strategic deterrence.
Army Global Commitments

Our Army is engaged in more than 120 countries throughout the world. To highlight our Army's commitment, a review of the major warfighting formations of the Active and Reserve Component serves as a measurable benchmark. Over 24 of the Army's 33 Active Component Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs), and five of our 15 Reserve Component Enhanced Separate Brigades (ESB) were deployed in FY03. This trend will continue in FY04, with 26 of 33 Active Component BCTs and six of our 15 Reserve Component ESB brigades projected for deployment.

The majority of these combat formations are deployed in the U.S. Central Command area of responsibility (AOR), effectively executing stability and support operations. More than 153,000 Soldiers are supporting CENTCOM operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Kuwait and the Horn of Africa. We are currently in the middle of the largest movement of troops since WWII, as we rotate more than eight-and-a-half divisions and two ESBs to or from the theater. The approximate ratio of Active to Reserve Component forces today is currently 63 to 37 percent, respectively. Once our current rotation is complete, the ratio will change to approximately 54 to 46 percent, Active to Reserve Component. Since September 11, we have mobilized almost half of the Reserve Component. They are trained, professional, and ready to execute any task.

Army support to other Combatant Commanders remains high. U.S. Northern Command's Army component, U.S. Army Forces Command, provides more than 23,000 Active and Reserve Component Soldiers for duty in the defense of our homeland. These troops are available for missions including Military Assistance to Civil Authorites (MACA), emergency preparedness, and anti-terrorist operations. The Army Reserve provides to NORTHCOM significant voice and data connectivity necessary to execute real-time operations. U.S. European Command provides forces, such as V U.S. Corps, to CENTCOM; and to Stability Force (SFOR) and Kosovo Force (KFOR) in the Balkans. U.S. Pacific Command supports ongoing operations in the Philippines, as part of the Global War on Terrorism, in addition to maintaining more than 31,000 Soldiers on the Korean Peninsula. U.S. Southern Command is fully engaged as the headquarters for 1,500 Soldiers executing detainee operations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; has deployed 740 Soldiers to Joint Task Force - Bravo at Soto Cano Airbase, Honduras; and is assisting the government of Colombia in its war on narco-terrorism. U.S. Special Operations Command's Army component provides professional, dedicated, and specially trained Soldiers to each Combatant Commander. These Soldiers, working closely with conventional forces, have been instrumental to our success in the Global War on Terrorism.

In addition to federal missions, our Army National Guard (ARNG) plays an important domestic role, routinely responding to state emergencies. In FY03, there were 280 requests for emergency support, ranging from basic human needs to engineering support during natural disasters. Our ARNG has fielded 32 Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Civil Support Teams (CST), which assist first responders in the event of an incident. Another 12 CSTs are due to be activated within 18 months. To date, these teams have responded to 74 different requests for support. Also, more than 8,000 ARNG Soldiers have executed critical force protection duties at 148 Air Force installations in CONUS.

Resetting the Force

The extraordinary demands major combat and stability operations in Afghanistan and Iraq are placing on our equipment and personnel require that our Army quickly reset returning units for future national security needs. The reset program will incorporate lessons learned from OIF and OEF, retrain essential tasks, adjust pre-positioned stocks of equipment and ammunition, and bring unit equipment readiness back to standard. The objective is to ensure our Army forces are ready to respond to near-term emerging threats and contingencies. However, reset cannot be viewed as a one-time event. Reset will continue to be key to our future readiness as our military executes our National Security missions.

Through reset, all returning active duty and Army Reserve units will achieve a sufficient level of combat readiness within six to eight months of their arrival at home station. The Army National Guard will take longer to achieve the desired level of readiness. The goal for these units is to reestablish pre-deployment readiness within one year. Our Army also will take advantage of reset as an opportunity to reorganize units into modular designs that are more responsive to regional Combatant Commanders' needs; that better employ joint capabilities; that reduce deployment time; and that fight as self-contained units in non-linear, non-contiguous battlespaces. This effort began with the 3rd Infantry Division and will soon be expanded to include the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault).

In addition to investing in new equipment to replace items that were destroyed or worn out during combat and stability operations, the reset program will repair major items used in OIF and OEF. Repair requirements have been determined for all OIF1 units and the workload for this comprehensive effort is immense: about 1,000 aviation systems; 124,400 communications and electronics systems; 5,700 combat/tracked vehicles; 45,700 wheeled vehicles; 1,400 missile systems; nine Patriot battalions; and approximately 232,200 items from various other systems. This effort represents a significant expansion of normal maintenance activities, requiring the increased use of CONUS and OCONUS based depot, installation and commercial repair facilities.

Reconfiguring existing Army pre-positioned stocks for global coverage of potential missions is a major component of the reset process. The intent is for each stock to have sufficient combat power to meet the immediate threat, as well as enough materials to render relief in other contingencies.

Congressional support, in the form of supplemental appropriations, has been invaluable in beginning the reset effort. Our readiness depends directly on the successful execution of the reset program, and it will remain an ongoing priority for the foreseeable future. Continued resourcing will be needed to ensure that our Army can fight the current war and posture itself for future missions.

Transformation: Moving From the Current to the Future Force

The goals of Army Transformation are to provide relevant and ready forces that are organized, trained and equipped for full-spectrum joint, interagency and multi-national operations and to support Future Force development. Army Transformation occurs within the larger context of changes to the entire U.S. military. To support our Army staff in the execution of transformation, the Army leadership directed the establishment of an Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Futures Center, operational as of October 2003.

Our Current Force is organized, trained and equipped to conduct operations as part of the Joint Force. It provides the requisite decisive land power capabilities that the Joint Force commander needs across the range of military operations: support to civil authorities at home and abroad; expeditionary forces; the ability to reassure friends, allies and multinational partners; dissuading and deterring adversaries; decisively defeating adversaries should deterrence fail; and winning the peace as part of an integrated, inter-agency, post-conflict effort.

Our Future Force is the operational force the Army continuously seeks to become. Informed by National Security and Department of Defense guidance, it is a strategically responsive, networked, precision capabilities-based maneuver force that is dominant across the range of military operations envisioned for the future global security environment.

As our Army develops the Future Force, it simultaneously is accelerating select future doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) capabilities into our Current Force. This process will be fundamental to our success in enhancing the relevance and readiness of our Army and prosecuting the Global War on Terrorism. Similarly, the operational experience of our Current Force directly informs the pursuit of Future Force capabilities.

Balancing Current and Future Readiness

Balancing risk between current and future readiness remains a critical part of our Army's transformation process and one that requires continual assessment to ensure that plans and programs are aligned with overall requirements. Without question, the issue of current operational readiness is our Army's highest priority. During the past several years, our Army made a conscious decision to accept a reasonable degree of risk to the readiness of our Current Force in order to permit investment in capabilities for our Future Force. This risk came in the form of reductions in and limitations to modernization and recapitalization programs. As part of the past four budget submissions, our Army made difficult choices to cancel and restructure programs, shifting resources to the development of transformational capabilities. Some of these investments have already produced results: for example, the new Stryker Brigade Combat Team formations now being fielded, the first of which is currently deployed on the battlefield in Iraq. Others are helping to develop emerging technologies and capabilities that will be applied to our force throughout the coming decade.

Besides the ongoing efforts related to equipping the Current Force, our Army also has begun other major initiatives that will improve our readiness and relevance in the future. These include an effort to realign Active and Reserve Component units and capabilities, in order to make our Army more readily deployable and available to Joint Force Commanders; home-basing and Unit Focused Stability, which will improve readiness and reduce personnel turbulence; and the reorganization of Army units into more modular and capability-based organizations.

While the previous decisions to accept reasonable risk in our Current Force were considered prudent at the time, the strategic and operational environment has significantly changed in light of the large-scale engagement of Army forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom and other expeditionary operations. Ever-changing demands on our force, coupled with our commitment to mitigating risk to our Soldiers, have necessitated re-examination and transformation of our Army's resource process and business practices (see Addendum H at

Making the Resource Process More Responsive

The resource process is our Army's center of gravity. Without the right people, the proper equipment, top-notch installations and adequate dollars to support all appropriately, our Army would not be able to fulfill its duty to our Nation.

In order to maintain our premier warfighting capability, Army resource processes must be flexible, dynamic, transparent and responsive to both our requirements and those of the Joint Force. This is especially true in today's environment. We are at war against conventional and unconventional enemies, and simultaneously pursuing transformation. Our resource process must be transformed to allow us to keep pace with changes brought on by the enemy. Though we anticipate the battle against terrorism will last for years, possibly decades, we cannot program and budget in advance for that war. Our Army obviously cannot ignore our country's current security needs, yet it would be equally imprudent to deviate from the development and fielding of our Future Force. Balancing these requirements will be one of our toughest tasks.

The GWOT requires a host of radical paradigm shifts in the way we view the face and nature of our global operating environment, as well as in the way that we conduct operations. Responsible yet creative stewardship of our resources will remain absolutely necessary. Internal controls must be tightened and waste eliminated; outsourcing non-core functions is still an important option. Risk will continue to be a factor and our resourcing decisions must take this into account.

We must transform our resource processes and adjust our priorities to meet the challenge of the current strategic environment. Because we cannot mass-produce a volunteer Army, the retention of the right volunteer force is an imperative. This force is essential to the combat effectiveness of an increasingly complex and technologically sophisticated Army. We must refine and streamline the resource, acquisition, and fielding processes for equipment and supplies as we cannot make up for lost time in a crisis.

Accelerated Aquisition and Fielding

We have adapted and continue to improve our acquisition and fielding processes. In 2002, as Soldiers reported equipment shortages in Afghanistan and elsewhere, we implemented the Rapid Fielding Initiative (RFI) to ensure that all of our troops deploy with the latest available equipment. Equipment fielding schedules were revised to support unit rotation plans, and procurement and fielding cycles were radically compressed.

In coordination with field commanders and our Soldiers, a list of more than 40 mission-essential items, including the Advanced Combat Helmet, close-combat optics, Global Positioning System receivers, Soldier intercoms and hydration systems, was identified for rapid fielding. Laying the foundation for acquisition transformation, RFI already has equipped nine brigade combat teams (BCTs). In FY04, RFI will upgrade a minimum of 18 BCTs and eight enhanced Separate Brigades, serving in OIF and OEF. Additionally, we are accelerating fielding of select future capabilities to our Current Force. These items include thermal weapon sights, enhanced night vision goggles, improved body armor, the Future Combat Rifle, and a new sniper rifle. Congressional support for regular budget and supplemental spending requests enables our Army to put this improved equipment in the hands of our Soldiers.

With this support, our Army also has instituted a Rapid Equipping Force (REF) that works directly with operational commanders to find solutions to operational requirements. These solutions may be off-the-shelf or near-term developmental items that can be made quickly available. For example, the REF established a coordinated effort to supply U.S. Forces with immediate solutions to counter improvised explosive device (IED) threats. Currently, IED teams are on location providing expertise and material solutions, to safeguard our Soldiers. We are acting aggressively to improve the armor protection of our armored and light-skinned vehicles. Other recent examples of REF products are the Well-Cam and PackBots. The Well-Cam is a camera, attached to an Ethernet cable and a laptop, that enabled Soldiers in Afghanistan to search wells for weapons caches. PackBots are operational robots used to clear caves, buildings, and compounds so Soldiers are not unnecessarily put in harm's way.

RFI and REF provide timely support to our relevant and ready forces and to the Combatant Commanders, and facilitate Army Transformation.
Balancing Our Active and Reserve Component Force Structure

Currently, neither our Active nor Reserve Component is optimized for today's rapid deployability requirements. We will continue ongoing efforts to restructure our forces in order to mitigate stress; to align better with the current and projected security environments; and to offer campaign-quality land power capabilities to the Combatant Commanders. By doing so, we will ensure that our Army provides the responsiveness and depth required to achieve strategic and operational objectives, while simultaneously defending our homeland.

Our Army is restructuring and rebalancing more than 100,000 positions in our Active and Reserve Component force structure. These conversions increase the Active Component capabilities available to support the first 30 days of a rapid response operation. In response to Secretary of Defense guidance, we have already completed approximately 10,000 positions. For example, the Army National Guard provisionally organized 18 additional military police (MP) companies. Between FY04 and FY09, our Army will divest approximately 19,500 positions of less frequently used Active and Reserve Component force structure to further resource critical high demand units such as military police, civil affairs, and special operations forces. We project that future rebalancing efforts will convert an additional 80,000 positions of lower-priority force structure. Despite these changes, our Army will remain stressed to meet anticipated requirements. To ensure that our Army can fulfill its commitment to our Nation, we should have the force capability level required to facilitate rebalancing, resetting, restructuring, and transforming of the Army.

Military-to-civilian conversions are another way to improve manpower efficiency. More military personnel will fill the operational force if they are moved out of positions that can be prudently performed by civilians. To improve the Army's ability to better support worldwide commitments, it is essential to start this process now.

Our Reserve Component relies heavily on Full-Time-Support (FTS) personnel to sustain support of current contingencies while restructuring the force. FTS personnel perform the vital, day-to-day organizational, administrative, training and maintenance activities that ensure the highest level of Soldier and unit readiness. To guarantee that our Army's Reserve Component will continue to fulfill ever-increasing demands with trained and ready units, our Army plans to raise FTS authorizations by 15 percent, from the current level of 71,928 to 85,840, by FY12. In 2003, the Army Reserve began implementation of the Federal Reserve Restructuring Initiative. The goal is to better meet contingency requirements and to improve unit readiness.

Achieving Greater Combat Capability with Modular, Capabiilities-based Unit Designs

Modular units are interchangeable, scalable, and tailorable formations, which provide the Joint Force Commander with a strategically responsive force that greatly increases his ability to defeat any adversary. Modularity enables us to tailor our capabilities to the requirements of the situation and delivered at the right time and the right place. Modularity permits the Combatant Commander to optimize his warfighting tool set.

Moving toward independent, echelon-above-brigade headquarters will enhance modularity. In accordance with our Unit of Employment (UE) construct, a UE will provide the command-and-control structure into which modular, capabilities-based Units of Action (UA) are organized to meet Combatant Commander requirements. These UAs will incorporate essential maintenance, intelligence, and communications functions previously provided by higher level organizations. Our UE headquarters, while able to accept joint capabilities such as a Standing Joint Force Headquarters element, will have an organic capability, depending on the contingency, to function as a Joint Task Force or Joint Force Land Component Command headquarters like we have already done in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Force Stabilization

The great demands placed on our Army have forced us to re-examine many of our long-standing personnel and basing practices. As a result, our Army is transitioning to an improved manning system, designed to augment unit readiness by increasing stability and predictability for commanders, Soldiers and families. Force Stabilization will allow Reserve Component Soldiers to plan for their deployments while supporting their civilian jobs and their community commitments. It places greater emphasis on building and sustaining cohesive, deployable, combat-ready forces for Combatant Commanders.

The home-basing initiative keeps our Soldiers in their assignments at specific installations longer, thus reducing unit turbulence and increasing unit cohesion. Unit Focused Stability synchronizes our Soldiers' assignments to their units' operational cycle, providing a more capable, deployable and prepared unit.

Installations as Our Flagships

Our installations are an essential component in maintaining the premier Army in the world. For the warfighter, installations are the platforms from which we project military power. Our installations perform the following key missions: 1) provide effective training facilities; 2) rapidly mobilize and deploy the force; 3) provide reachback capabilities; 4) sustain and reconstitute the force; and 5) care for our families. As power projection platforms, our installations must be equipped with a robust information infrastructure that gives the deployed commander quick and efficient reach-back capabilities. All of these missions help to maintain our Army's deployability and fighting edge.

Historically, we have accepted risk in our infrastructure and installation services in order to maintain our current readiness. The cumulative effect on our installations is that commanders rate more than 50 percent of our facilities as "adversely affecting mission and training requirements." We have adjusted our management processes to be more effective stewards of our resources. In 2002, we established the Installation Management Agency (IMA) to create a corporate-focused structure that provides efficient installation management worldwide. The IMA uses creative management programs to sustain quality installations and maintain the well-being of the entire Army family.

The Installation Information Infrastructure Modernization Program (I3MP) enhances the installation's role in power projection and provides the architecture to address the essential reach-back requirement. Additionally, our Installation Sustainability Plan addresses ways to fulfill environmental requirements without impacting current or future training. Other important progress include modernization of barracks and housing; a Residential Communities Initiative; and divestiture of redundant facilities infrastructure and non-core utility systems through privatization.

In the past few years, the administration and Congress have helped us to begin addressing our infrastructure challenges. We received 94 percent of funding required for installations in FY04. We have made progress in improving our installations by adjusting existing programs and developing new management strategies. However, there is much still left to do in order to upgrade our installations to better support the mission, Soldiers, and our families.

Army Families and Well Being

People are the heart and soul of the Army - Soldiers, civilians, family members, and retirees. Our readiness is inextricably linked to the well being of our people. The Army Family, for both the Active and Reserve Competent, is a force multiplier and provides the foundation to sustain our warrior culture. We have placed significant emphasis on our Reserve Component this year in recognition of their contributions to the Global War on Terrorism. With the help of the administration and Congress, many improvements have been made including the retention and increase of Imminent Danger Pay, Family Separation Allowance, and a sizable pay raise. Other key well-being initiatives include the Spousal Employment Partnership, new TRICARE policies for the reserve components, and improvements in barracks and family housing. For more information on other Army well-being initiatives, see Addendum D (available at

Introducing New Capabilites

While at war, the urgency to accelerate the development and fielding of new and enhanced capabilities to our fighting forces in the field has never been greater. Our Army is making significant strides in this regard with the employment of a new brigade combat team organization, equipped with the latest available technology, to provide the Combatant Commander with enhanced warfighting capabilities. The rapid fielding of the Stryker vehicle demonstrates our Army's ability to use the acquisition and resource processes to meet a Combatant Commander's urgent needs.

Stryker Brigade Combat Team (SBCT)

In 2003, our Army deployed our first SBCT, the 3rd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division, to Operation Iraqi Freedom, delivering its enhanced capability to the Joint Force in record time: four years from broad concept to deployment. Exceptional support from Congress and the Office of the Secretary of Defense, along with close collaboration between the Army and industry, made this achievement possible.

Stryker brigades are our Army's first truly network-centric force, filling the capability gap between light- and heavy-force units with an infantry-rich, mobile force that is strategically responsive, tactically agile, and more lethal. Improved battlespace awareness and battle-command technologies embedded in our SBCTs enhance combat effectiveness and survivability by integrating data from manned and unmanned air and ground-based sensors and providing real-time, continuous situational understanding. Planned enhancements will incorporate still-developing technologies. Significantly, our SBCTs will improve our Army's understanding of Future Force processes, helping us to formulate an advanced warfighting doctrine that will serve as an important bridge to the development of our Unit of Action, the structural foundation of our Future Force.

This spring, our second SBCT at Fort Lewis, Washington, will become operational. Our third SBCT, in Alaska, will be available in 2005. Continued OSD and congressional support will ensure that subsequent brigades in Hawaii, Louisiana, and Pennsylvania, are fielded between 2004 and 2008.

Future Capabilites

Our Army plans to field a number of systems this decade that will provide a foundation for informing the transformation of our Current Force capabilities into those needed by our Future Force. Once fielded, these systems will perform as interdependent systems of systems and will greatly enhance joint warfighting capabilities. Our future capabilities programs are designed to enhance the campaign-quality land-power capabilities that we provide to the Combatant Commanders. Our programs undergo continuous reviews to ensure they meet the capability requirements of the Joint Force. When required, we restructure programs, revise requirements and reprogram resources. The following are just a few of the key transformational systems our Army will begin to field during the next six years:

The Network

Our Future Force situational dominance will depend upon a comprehensive, ubiquitous, and joint-interoperable Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) architecture (the Network) that enables the Joint Force Commander to conduct fully interdependent and network-centric warfare. The Network will provide the backbone of our Future Force and the future Joint Force, enabling the maneuver commander to effectively coordinate battlefield effects. Some of the more important systems within our Network include:

Warfighter Information Network - Tactical (WIN-T). WIN-T will be the communications network of our Future Force, optimized for offensive and joint operations, while providing the Combatant Commander the capability to perform multiple missions simultaneously.

Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS). JTRS is a family of common, software-defined, programmable radios that will become our Army's primary tactical radio for mobile communications.

Distributed Common Ground System - Army (DCGS-A). DCGS-A is a single, integrated, ground-based, ISR processing system composed of joint, common hardware and software components and is part of the DOD DCGS family of systems.

Aerial Common Sensor (ACS). This ISR system and platform will use robust sensor-to-shooter and reach links, (such as DCGS-A ground stations), to provide commanders at every echelon the tailored, multi-sensor intelligence required for joint operations.

Future Combat System (FCS)

By extending the network capabilities into the Unit of Action, the FCS provide a system of systems capability that was not previously available to Soldiers and commanders in joint operations. The core of our Future Force's maneuver Unit of Action is the Future Combat Systems, comprised of 18 manned and unmanned platforms that are centered around the Soldier and integrated within a C4ISR network. FCS will provide our Soldiers greatly enhanced situational awareness, enabling them to see first, understand first, act first and finish decisively. Our FCS platforms will offer the Joint Force networked, lethal direct fire; indirect fire; air defense; complementary non-lethal fires and effects; and troop transport capability. In May 2003, FCS moved, on schedule, into the System Development and Demonstration phase. Our Army is aggressively managing our FCS development effort and intends to achieve initial operational capability by the end of the decade.

Army Science and Technology

The Army Science and Technology (S&T) Program provides our Army superiority in both human and materiel systems arenas--preventing technological surprise. The Army S&T program retains a dynamic portfolio of investments that are responsive to warfighter needs today and into the future. The priority for Army S&T is to pursue paradigm-shifting technologies that can alter the nature of the military competition to our advantage in the future and, where feasible, to exploit opportunities to accelerate the transition of proven technologies to our Current Force.

The Army S&T program exploits technology developments from the other services, defense agencies and commercial industry as well as international communities. The S&T program focuses on technology relevant to our Army and joint capabilities. It synchronizes operational concepts development and acquisition programs through transformational business practices that speed technology fielding to the Soldier. The Army's S&T program is balanced to satisfy the high payoff needs of the future force while seeking rapid transitions for critical capabilities to our Current Force.

Joint Operational Concepts

The Joint Force has transitioned from independent, de-conflicted operations to sustained interoperability. It must now shift rapidly to joint interdependence. To that end, we are reviewing training requirements, traditional relationships and developmental and institutional programs. This process includes ensuring that our operational concepts are nested inside those employed by the Joint Force. The concepts and initiatives listed below discuss particular Army emphasis areas; these areas are not all-inclusive. Functional concepts and other Army initiatives that support the JOpsC are discussed in detail in Addendum J (available at
Actionable Intelligence

Our Army also is focused on attaining actionable intelligence -- intelligence that provides situational understanding to commanders and Soldiers with the speed, accuracy and confidence necessary to influence favorably current and future operations. Actionable intelligence achieves its intended purpose of empowering greater individual initiative and self-synchronization among tactical units by fusing information across organizations and echelons -- accelerating the speed of decision-making and the agility of operations.

Focused Logistics

Our Army's current actions around the world in support of the Global War on Terrorism present a view of future military operations and provide valuable insights as we transform our logistics systems from the Current to the Future Force. The successes enjoyed during OIF were the result of the integrated logistics team of Soldiers, civilians and contractors, all of whom developed innovative solutions to a range of challenges caused by four major capability gaps in the current logistics system. To sustain combat power, our Army must have the ability to "see the requirements" on-demand through a logistics data network. We require a responsive distribution system, enabled by in-transit and total-asset visibility and managed by a single owner who has positive end-to-end control in the theater. Our Army needs a robust, modular, force-reception capability -- a dedicated and trained organization able to quickly open a theater and support continuous sustainment throughout the joint operations area. Lastly, we need an integrated supply chain that has a single proponent, who can reach across the breadth and depth of resources in a joint, interagency and multinational theater. As we move from the Current Force to the Future Force, we will build confidence in the minds of the Combatant Commanders by delivering sustainment on time, every time.

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