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Army Posture Statement FY00

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A Statement on the Posture ofThe United States ArmyFiscal Year 2000

byThe Honorable Louis Caldera andGeneral Dennis J Reimer

Presented toThe Committees and Subcommittees of the


February 1999

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iiSoldiers are our credentials

COVER PHOTO An American soldier trains with Land Warrior equipment as part of theArmys comprehensive program for assessing its efforts to leverage informationage technology to ensure superior 21st century capabilities

The annual Army Posture Statement APS is an unclassified summary of Army roles missionsaccomplishments plans and programs Designed to reinforce the Secretary of the Army and Chiefof Staff Army posture and budget testimony before Congress the APS is subsequently distributedextensively and serves a broad audience as a basic reference on the state of the ArmyThe APS is available on the internet on the Army Homepage at httpwwwarmymil It isproduced by the Office of the Chief of Staff US Army Congressional Activities Division DACSCAD telephone 703 69599139997 DSN Prefix 225 address Email to TryonSPhqdaarmymil

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iiiForeword Americas Army is transforming itself in accordance with the NationalMilitary Strategy to a force that measures its readiness not only by its preeminent missionto fight and win our Nations warsbut also by its readiness to meetthe challenges of preserving peace and countering emerging threats The transformation has stretched the Army from a force oriented on responding to thedangers of the Cold War to a force capable of shaping the international environment responding to crises that challenge US security interests and preparing for a rangeof threats and opportunities The Army has attained an unprecedented achievement by meeting the continuous demands of current readiness while adjusting its focusand structure in significant ways Despite the toll this transformation and increasing requirements have taken on our people equipment and systems the Army is proudof its central role in US engagement around the worldThe Armys challenge is to take care of our people while meeting nearterm readiness demands and preparing for the requirements of future readiness To assurewe can accomplish future missions leveraging information technology to revolutionize military operations over the next ten to fifteen years is a key priorityWe remain committed to providing the American people the most readiness for the resources provided Accordingly we continue to focus on and support moreefficient ways of doing business such as the Defense Reform Initiatives In conjunction with these efforts Americas role as a global leader makes it vital tofund the Army at a level commensurate with the requirements of the worlds preeminent land combat force

The Honorable Louis CalderaSecretary of the ArmyGeneral Dennis J ReimerChief of Staff

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Executive Summary vii

Chapter 1

Assuring Current and Future Readiness 1
Readiness The National Military Strategy and Army Capabilities 2
Readiness for WhatThe National Military Strategy 2
The NMS and Army Capabilities 4
Doing Americas Heavy Lifting The Army and the NMS 5
Shaping the International Environment
Responding to Crises Abroad and at Home 9
Preparing for an Uncertain Future
Resource Concerns 15
Conclusion 16

Chapter 2

Generating Capabilities for the Full Spectrum of Military Operations 17
The Army Vision 17

AC RC and Army Civilian 18
The Active Component 19
The Reserve Components 19
Army Civilians 20
Institutional and Operational Forces 21
Total Army Capabilities 23
Conventional Forces 23
Special Operations Forces 23
Other Unique Capabilities 24
Power Projectionthe Army Strategic Mobility Program 25
Synchronizing the Six Imperatives 26
Quality People 26
Training 27
Force Mix 28
Doctrine 29
Modern Equipment 30
Leader Development 31
Conclusion 32

Chapter 3

Readiness for the 21st Century Knowing What to Change 33
Strategy For the 21st Century 34
Tomorrows Geostrategic Environment 34
Joint Vision 2010 and Army Vision 2010 34

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Army Experiments and the Revolutions in MilitaryAffairs and Military Logistics 35
Force XXIA Process for Synchronizing Future Readiness and Change 36
The Army Experimentation Campaign Plan 37
Battle Labs and CTCs Enabling Change 39
The Army After Next Project 3
9Joint and Combined Experimentation 40
The Army Modernization Plan 40
Army Modernization Goals 41
Fielding Required Capabilities 44
Gain Information Dominance
Project the Force 44
Protect the Force 45
Shape the Battlespace 45
Decisive Operations 45
Sustain the Force 47
Future Force Structure 47
Total Army Analysis 2007 47
Division XXI Redesigning the Heavy Division 48
ARNG Division Redesign Study
Total Army Integration 49
Training Soldiers and Leaders 50
The Army Leader Campaign Plan 50
The Total Army School System 50
Training Aids Devices Simulators and Simulations 51
Preserving Army Values 52
The Human Relations Action Plan 52
Character Development XXI 52
The Consideration of Others Program 53
Conclusion 53

Chapter 4

The Army CommunityGetting the Balance Right 55
A Community With a Mission 55
Managing Army Installations and Organizations 56
The Installation Status Report 56
Installation Vision 2010 56
The Installation Information Infrastructure Architecture 56
Safety 57Quality of Life 57
Army Family Housing and the Residential Community Initiative 58
Single Soldier Housing 58
Medical Care 59
Commissaries and Exchanges 60

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Morale Welfare and Recreation Programs 60
Army Family Programs 61
Retired Soldiers 62
Sustaining the Environment 62
Defense Reform and Army InitiativesAssuring A Revolution In Business Affairs 63
Reinvention 64
Acquisition Reform 64
Streamlining Civilian Personnel Administration 65
Financial Management 65
ActivityBased Costing 65
A76 Cost Competition Studies 66
Base Realignment and Closure 66
Other Infrastructure Management Initiatives
Logistics Efficiencies
Army Installations and Organizations Good Neighbors Nationwide 70
Americas Army The Community Next Door
The Army Civil Works Program
Conclusion 72

Chapter 5

Stretching the Fabric of the Army 73
Taking Care of People 74
Recruiting Retention and Compensation 74
Managing PERSTEMPO 77
Concerns with Readiness and Modernization 78
Resources Available The FY00 Budget 81
Conclusion 82

Acronyms 85

Addendum A16

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Executive SummaryviiSoldiers are our Credentials

I do not know when or where but we will sometime place soldiers in harms way on short noticeand ask them to defeat a determined and dangerous foe When that happens we should be satisfiedthat we have done our best to prepare them for the task at hand - General Dennis J Reimer CSA

Americas Army is the most potent land combat force in the world The Army is indispensableto the protection and furtherance of our national interests because it has greater utility across thefull range of contingencies than other types of military force This utility comes from Armycapabilities for executing a broad range of operations from nation building and disaster relief todefeating enemies on the battlefield Generating and sustaining these capabilities over time requiresa deliberate complex process involving people readiness and modernization The Armyschallenge in recent years has been to take care of people keep the force trained and ready andsimultaneously continue the most fundamental institutional change since World War II Meetingthis challenge with constrained resources has stretched the fabric of Americas Army We arecommitted to be as efficient as we can continuing robust efforts to move forward on the Armyspart of the Defense Departments Defense Reform Initiatives and the Revolution in BusinessAffairs The fiscal year FY 99 supplemental funding measure approved by Congress and thePresidents FY00 Budget support our efforts and address many of our most pressing readinessconcerns

The Geostrategic Environment and National Military StrategyChanges to the National Military Strategy NMS in response to the geostrategic environmenthave driven the Armys transition since the final years of the Cold War The containment strategyof the previous era demanded an Army focused on the Soviet threat The US Army maintaineda higher level of forward presence overseas than it does today and training was based largely oncountering predictable Soviet htmtrine Increasing instability in some regions made the need forengagement evident even before the Soviet Unions demise However the end of the Cold Warsbipolar stability allowed a more rapid emergence of regional instabilities and transnationalchallenges such as terrorism aggressive behavior by rogue states seeking power and resources andthe proliferation of weapons of mass destruction These threats are much less predictable andconsequently the United States may face some combination of them at any time The diversenature of these emergent threats fostered a new strategy for using Americas global leadership tomake the world a safer place By mitigating potential threats through shaping operationscountering actual threats and responding to crises and preparing for future threats the new militarystrategy seeks to promote global stability As a result of the geostrategic environment and the NMS

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the Army is transforming itself to a force based on capabilities needed for shaping and respondingwhile at the same time preparing for the future

The Armys most fundamental capability is the exercise of sustained comprehensive controlover people land and natural resources Putting American soldiers on the ground is the mosteffective method to shape the international environment in ways favorable to our interests Armyshaping activities are executed facetoface and oneonone with the armies and people of othernations Such interaction has a lasting and positive effect that simply cannot be achieved throughless direct engagement Putting American soldiers on the ground is the most credible response topotential aggressors and to those who would exploit instability for their own ends It is also themost tangible evidence of the nations commitment to both allies and adversaries Bombs andmissiles can destroy selected targets and temporarily deny control of terrain but they cannot providethe presence required to compel compliance with the rule of law and the processes of peaceMaintaining the capability to project and employ land power in the information age is essential toprotecting the nations interests against the diverse threats likely to emerge in an uncertain future

Even as changes in environment and strategy have increased the frequency with which the Armyis employed worldwide social and economic factors created pressure for reducing defensespending The Army has transitioned to a force about onethird smaller than it was in 1989 andhas capitalized on the end of Cold War containment to shift many forces from overseas bases backto the continental United States CONUS The Army has sought increased efficiency in itsoperational and business practices to meet todays more frequent demands for American presencewith a smaller force and budget Exploiting the potential of information technology enhancing theintegration of active and reserve component forces and implementing a broad set of defensereforms and Army initiatives are among the avenues by which the Army is becoming a moreeffective and efficient force

Much leaner than it was ten years ago the Army nonetheless finds itself almost continuouslyengaged at home and abroad More than 60 percent of the people participating in 32 of the 36 majormilitary deployments since 1989 have been soldiers yet the Army receives only 25 percent of thedefense budget Proud of its central role in the execution of the National Military Strategy theArmy can continue to execute this strategy with acceptable risk if provided with sufficientresources However the resource constraints of the past fourteen years coupled with the high paceof operations have severely stretched the fabric of the Army While we remain ready today to playthe central role in the National Military Strategy adverse trends in recruiting and retention peoplereadiness and modernization must be countered to assure sustained readiness for today and intothe 21st century The FY99 supplemental and the increase in Army Total Obligation Authority

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TOA in the FY00 Budget and outyear spending plan are helpful and are being applied to improvereadiness These funding increases will address many of the concerns expressed by Army and otherDepartment of Defense leaders by demonstrating our commitment to take care of our people andto enhance nearterm readiness Modernization needs are being addressed by holding investmentsat roughly the same levels forecasted in last years Presidents Budget with the expectation ofgrowth in the outyears

Last year the Army identified the need for an annual increase of 5 billion over the FY99Budget in addition to increases required for contingency operations pay increases and reform ofmilitary retirement The Presidents FY00 Budget sends a strong signal of support and concern forthe welfare of our soldiers Army civilians and their families The budget provides for knowncontingency funding and enhances nearterm readiness While funding increases have been helpfulin many areas modernization continues to carry the largest burden of risk Increases to readinessaccounts will reduce the need to migrate funds from modernization and Armywide efforts tobecome more efficient along with Defense Reform Initiatives and a capacity for additional BaseRealignment and Closure create the potential for increased funding for the modernization accountThe Armys Force XXI process has provided a roadmap for transforming the Army to meet 21stcentury requirements Funding levels will be the primary determinant of the pace at which thattransformation occurs

Supporting the National Military StrategyIn spite of resource constraints and signs of wear Americas Army is supporting the NMSaround the world 24 hours a day On an average day in FY98 over 122000 soldiers stationedoverseas and 28000 soldiers deployed away from home station were conducting operations in morethan 70 countries

Army personnel conduct numerous activities that help shape the international environmentContinued support for observer missions in Macedonia the Multinational Force and Observers inthe Sinai and along the border between Ecuador and Peru help foster stability and promote peaceActive and reserve component soldiers and Army civilians contribute to deterrence through forwardpresence Soldiers and Army civilians also enhance our relationships with allies and friends througha variety of programs In FY98 armytoarmy activities ranged from seniorlevel contacts to thetraining of 5980 foreign military personnel under the International Military Education and TrainingIMET and Foreign Military Sales programs Such activities foster cooperation with other nationsand offer a unique opportunity to influence the character of other nations militaries in a positiveway Army participation in Partnership for Peace and associated exchanges and exercises helped

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set the stage for the peaceful enlargement of NATO while building the foundation for cooperativeefforts with nonNATO forces as well American soldiers trained soldiers of other nations on thetactics techniques and procedures of humanitarian demining and counterdrug operations Underthe African Crisis Response Initiative American soldiers provided peacekeeping training to soldiersof several African nations These important operations are proactive shaping the world to be asafer place

The Army also responds to crises to protect American interests around the world with its decisivecombat logistics and administrative capabilities The deployment of the 1st Brigade of the 3dInfantry Division Mechanized to Kuwait in February 1998 demonstrated such a responseWithin 96 hours the brigade had completed its deployment from the United States and occupieddefensive positions in Kuwait In support of Operation Desert Fox in December the Army onceagain rapidly deployed units to reinforce elements already deployed for training in Kuwait Thepresence of several thousand American soldiers effectively deterred any threatening activity by Iraqiground forces While Desert Fox was unfolding the Army also provided substantial support forHurricane Mitch Disaster Relief in Honduras Nicaragua El Salvador and Guatemala through bothJoint Task ForceBravo and the Disaster Relief Joint Task Force In Bosnia the Europebased 1 stArmored Division with active and reserve component augmentation provided the US contingentto NATO forces ensuring compliance with the Dayton Accords for most of last year The CONUSbased 1 st Cavalry Division assumed responsibility for the US portion of this contingency operationin October 1998 Closer to home soldiers and Army civilians were instrumental in providingsupport for numerous disaster relief efforts in the United States and its territories

In addition to its shaping and responding activities the Army is preparing for emerging threatsranging from the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction to attacks on our informationsystems The Secretary of the Armys role as the Executive Agent for the Department of DefenseDoD Domestic Preparedness program places the Army in the forefront of this key initiative Theprogram is the centerpiece of joint and interagency efforts to prepare our military and civilian firstresponders for incidents involving weapons of mass destruction WMD By giving local officialsthe tools to train their own response teams the Domestic Preparedness program will provide 120cities with the ability to train first responders by the end of FY02 A Federal Training Team whichincludes reserve component instructors conducts the initial training for individuals who will set upthe local programs At the end of FY98 a total of 9950 firstresponder trainers in 32 cities hadreceived the training In the area of cyberdefense the Army is implementing measures to protectfriendly information and decision making processes from intentional disruption The addition ofInformation Operations specialists at division level and above installation of intrusion detectiondevices and development of regional Computer Emergency Response Teams in both the active and

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reserve components are among the steps the Army has taken in this regardEfforts to field the first information age Army continue as well In response to the promise ofinformation technology Joint Vision 2010 JV2010 and Army Vision 2010 AV2010 haveidentified operational concepts and patterns of operation to guide the development of informationbased warfighting capabilities The Revolution in Military Affairs refers to increased combateffectiveness through the integration and exploitation of information technology Informationtechnology allows the Army to give every friendly soldier on the battlefield a continuously updatedpicture of where other forcesboth friendly and enemyare and what they are doing Eachelement of the friendly force is thereby made more effective because the ability to share informationmakes it possible to better concentrate the effects of friendly combat power against the enemysvulnerabilities A force that can achieve information dominance to this degree should also reducefratricide the accidental casualties within its ranks caused by misidentification Another revolutionenabled by information technology the ongoing Revolution in Military Logistics is transitioningthe Army to a logistics system based on rapid distribution of supplies and equipment to units whenthey need them as opposed to a system based on prepositioning large stockpiles in anticipation ofunit needs This distributionbased system employs automated systems for total asset visibilitycommunications new organizational designs improved platforms and new distribution conceptsSuch a system will enhance the Armys operational capabilities increase efficiency by cuttingdemand and reduce the deployment time for followon forces

ExperimentationThe Army Force XXI process is building the first information age Army By using a varietyof different field training experiments in which soldiers use a blend of old and new equipmentunder realistic conditions the process fuels the development of equipment and conceptsExperimentation under realistic conditions permits a holistic approach to change Soldiers gain anappreciation for the strengths and weaknesses of new concepts and prototypes under fieldconditions provide immediate feedback to materiel developers and industry representatives andthen assess improvements This socalled foxhole to factory partnership leads to a significantlyfaster development cycle known as spiral development and permits a more rapid fielding ofequipment with information technologies to soldiers and units

The Force XXI process not only benefits the Army by providing feedback for equipmentdevelopment but also reveals the implications of new equipment for the Armys corecompetenciesour six imperatives These imperativespeople force mix htmtrine trainingmodern equipment and leader developmentmust support one another at any given point in time

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to produce readiness When changes in one imperative are accompanied by appropriatecorresponding changes in the other imperatives we say the imperatives are synchronized Therecent heavyforce experiments conducted with the 4th Infantry Division Mechanized 4IDMoffer an example of the power of the Force XXI process for synchronizing the imperatives Theexperiments included a brigadelevel Task Force XXI Advanced Warfighting Experiment AWEat the National Training Center and a computerdriven divisionlevel AWE at Fort HoodLessons learned from these experiments led to a redesign of Army heavy divisions The heavydivision redesign features a reduction in the number of tanks and infantry fighting vehicles from58 to 44 in each battalion This reduction essentially a change in the Armys force mix ispossible because of the increased lethality that information technology modern equipmentallows Through its experimentation with modern equipment the Force XXI process illuminatesdesirable changes such as the heavy division redesign across the other imperatives

PeopleQuality people are the first of the six imperatives and the single most important factor formaintaining readiness The Army is people Army capabilities to shape to respond and toprepare are embedded in the foundation our people provide The 25yearold Sergeantcommanding a tank in California the 18yearold Private First Class serving in the crew of aPatriot missile launcher in Saudi Arabia the soldiers on leave from civilian jobs to serve theirNation and countless others performing demanding tasks all over the world are our credentialsthey do the things that make us the worlds best Army Not just anyone can do these things norcan our Nation afford to send just anyone to do them It is the people who do the unexpectedextraordinary things in difficult circumstances who make the Army much more than the sum ofits parts Given the importance of people to our Army recent recruiting trends and retentionindicators are causes for concern

The Army failed to meet its recruiting goals for FY98 and for the first quarter of FY99 Theactive component fell about 800 enlistees short of the target last year and missed this years firstquarter target by 2300 soldiers The Army National Guard ARNG and United States ArmyReserve USAR were about 1200 and 3700 recruits short of FY98 targets respectively Qualityis also an important indicator of people trends The Total Army continues to meet most of itsrecruiting quality goals

While overall retention percentages still exceed requirements these percentages mask retentiondifficulties among noncommissioned officers NCOs and soldiers with certain MilitaryOccupational Specialties MOS Also over the past seven years the number of officers and

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enlisted soldiers indicating an intent to remain on active duty has declined by more than fivepercent The Spring 1998 Sample Survey of Military Personnel shows the top two reasons citedby officers for leaving the military to be the amount of time separated from family and the amountof basic pay Since 1992 satisfaction with retirement benefits fell from 618 percent to 36 percentfor officers and from 472 percent to 288 percent for enlisted soldiers The REDUX retirementsystem resulting from the 1986 Military Retirement Reduction Act was the fastestrising area ofdiscontent for our soldiers on these surveys

Recruiting trends and survey results confirm that compensation retirement and quality of lifeissues are important factors for recruiting and retaining quality people in the Army The promptcommitment of the Administration and Congress to increase pay and reform military retirementare important steps to reinforce the Armys recruiting and retention efforts and will send a strongsignal to soldiers that the Nation values their service

Readiness and TrainingWhile people are indispensable to our Armys success there are other dimensions tomaintaining readiness Military readiness is a measure of capabilities against requirements TheArmy generates capabilities to meet the requirements of the National Military Strategy bysynchronizing the six imperatives continuously over time When properly synchronized theseimperatives complement each other and create optimal readiness Todays readiness is theproduct of our investments in these imperatives over many years The development of todaysbattalionlevel officer and NCO leaders for instance began almost 20 years ago

Unfortunately readiness can dissipate far more rapidly than it can be built UnderfundedOperations Tempo Base Operations and Real Property Maintenance accounts as well as latereimbursement for contingency operations detract from training and readiness Sustainedunderfunding of modernization and subsequent delayed fielding of new and modern equipmentcan have serious impacts on the other imperatives Recent difficulties in recruiting and retentionthreaten to erode the pool of outstanding soldiers who are the heart of todays readiness and thesource of tomorrows leaders All of these recent issues can if left unresolved disrupt theimperatives and unhinge readiness

Realistic training for the Armys soldiers and civilians supports readiness by maintaining landpower proficiency for the full spectrum of military operations Army training is performanceoriented soldiers and civilians perform essential tasks to established standards under realisticconditions For soldiers who serve in genderintegrated units genderintegrated training is a key

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aspect of training realism Units are teams and soldiers learn to perform their duties best whenthey are trained from their first days of service to understand and respect other members of theirteam Genderintegrated training supports the Armys need to build teams and to have all soldiersfeel like valued members of their teams The Armys Combat Training Centers CTCs areanother example of the Armys commitment to training realism At CTCs units conductsustained operations against a skillful opposing force and under the watchful eye of a professionalcadre wellversed in the latest htmtrine CTCs conduct the worlds best training Continuing toenhance CTC operations will be a critical contributor to future Army battlefield successes

While the quality of Army training is second to none the challenge in recent years has beento resource enough training particularly at home station Recent reports indicate that units arearriving at CTCs at lower levels of proficiency than in the past Resource constraints for BaseOperations BASOPS and Real Property Maintenance RPM accounts have been areas ofconcern affecting training and readiness In the past the Army resourced training primarilythrough Operations Tempo OPTEMPO accounts OPTEMPO captures the fuel and repair partscosts associated with driving or flying Army equipment the number of miles or hours associatedwith executing certain groupings of training exercises OPTEMPO does not capture many costsassociated with training such as the cost of training aids and simulators ranges and maintenanceoperations The Army generally funds OPTEMPO at 100 percent of annual requirements forpriority units but has had to underfund BASOPS and RPM accounts in order to do so BASOPSand RPM however fund many training costs not covered by OPTEMPO as well as quality oflife programs and facilities In recent years the cumulative effect of underfunded BASOPS andRPM has forced many commanders to decrement OPTEMPO accounts to pay for readinessrelated BASOPS and RPM needs Stemming this socalled migration of OPTEMPO dollarsrequires sufficient resourcing for BASOPS and RPM

BASOPS and RPM affect readiness through their impact on training maintenance deploymentinfrastructure and quality of life Average RPM funding from FY90 to FY97 was only 56 percentof annual requirements resulting in a backlog of facility maintenance requirements BASOPSwhich includes essential items such as utilities and municipal services has traditionally beenfunded at a higher level the FY99 supplemental funding measure increased BASOPS fundingfrom the budgeted level of 84 percent to 91 percent The FY00 budget and outyear proposal willallow better resourcing of these accounts BASOPS funding is at 95 percent from FY00 throughFY05 under this plan with RPM at 77 percent through FY01 and 90 percent from FY02 throughFY05 RPM funding at these levels will help stem the deterioration of facilities through FY02and will allow the Army to begin reducing the facilities maintenance backlog beginning in FY03

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The Armys substantial contributions to shaping and smallscale contingency operations alsohave a readiness cost For combat units the skills required for peace operations are oftentimesnot those required for combat Training and execution of such operations detract from unitcombat training and consequently from warfighting skills Nevertheless these operationsconstitute a critical proactive component of national security activities and the Army is theforce best suited to conduct them For many combat support and logistics units operations suchas Bosnia offer an opportunity to operate under realistic conditions Combat units also realizesome training benefit from deploying conducting force protection activities and implementingrules of engagement However these missions increase the pace of operations in units bycreating additional training requirements that compete for limited training time and in somecases decrease the level of training on warfighting skills

The Army has also had to use OPTEMPO funds in the past to pay for contingencyoperations Delayed reimbursement for these operations can detract from unit training bycausing cancellation of scheduled training due to lack of funds Even though the money mayeventually be replaced it is impossible to replace the loss of training time associated with thisphenomenon Timely nonoffset funding for contingency operations such as that containedin the Presidents FY00 Budget is important for current readiness


While the FY00 Budget request addresses many of the concerns associated with taking careof people and ensuring readiness there simply have not been enough resources to fund allpriorities Highest priority modernization programs have been funded to ensure developmentof future capabilities but at a pace slower than desired Other programs will have to await theresults of initiatives that will generate additional funding for modernization The ArmyModernization Plan is the Armys strategy for fielding systems that provide the capabilities tosupport JV2010 and AV2010 The Army executes its modernization plan by establishing andpursuing specific goals essential to enabling AV2010 patterns of operation Through thisframework the modernization plan links future equipment to anticipated future operationalrequirements

Digitization our goal to modernize Army units by equipping them with digital systems isthe means by which we will achieve information dominance It involves the use of moderncommunications capabilities and computers to enable commanders planners and shooters torapidly acquire and share information The Army will equip the the 4 th Infantry DivisionMechanizedthe Armys heavy experimental forcewith information dominance capability

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by the end of FY00 and will equip III Corps by the end of FY04 The force capable ofachieving information dominance is called Army XXI Army XXI units will have some currentsystems that have information dominance capabilities added as well as some new leap aheadsystems such as the Comanche helicopter and the Crusader howitzer Further in the futureother advanced technologies will be leveraged to create more leapahead systems Fielding andintegration of these systems will create the force we refer to as the Army After Next AANa force that will combine information dominance with better strategic and tactical mobility

The four other goals identified in The Army Modernization Plan are maintaining combatovermatch sustaining essential research and development while focusing science andtechnology on leapahead capabilities recapitalizing the force and integrating the active andreserve components We maintain combat overmatch by upgrading current systems periodicallythrough Preplanned Product Improvements programs thus keeping our current systems morecapable than those of our adversaries At the same time we focus the limited resourcesavailable on development of technologies and systems that promise truly revolutionary or leapahead capabilities Recapitalization keeps our force viable and avoids block obsolescencethrough extended service plans depot rebuild programs and selective replacement of importantassets such as our truck fleet As we modernize we must also ensure that our active andreserve components are fully integrated to ensure new capabilities are optimized throughout theArmy

The challenge of meeting the increased mission requirements generated by the NMS whiletaking care of its people has forced the Army to accept risk in modernization in recent yearsSince 1989 Army modernization buying power has dropped 44 percent The Army hasterminated or restructured over 100 programs since 1987 In general slowing procurementincreases costs for each system procured Because of funding constraints the Army hasmaintained procurement programs at minimum sustaining rates rather than at more efficienteconomic rates Modernization also helps to reduce operations and support costs Whileequipment serviceability rates remain high for fielded equipment older equipment is moreexpensive and more timeintensive to maintain allowing fleets to age beyond their economicusefulness will cost the Army future dollars manpower commitment and training timeTodays modernization programs are tomorrows capabilities Increased modernization fundingwill ensure future readiness and provide our soldiers the combat overmatch they need to winquickly decisively and with minimum casualties

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Total Army IntegrationWith 54 percent of the Army in the reserve components integration of the Total Armyactivecomponent USAR and ARNGis important for optimizing readiness The White Paper OneTeam One Fight One Future provides a framework for integrating the active component AC andthe reserve component RC The conversion of some ARNG combat forces to meet Army combatsupport and combat service support requirements will facilitate the integration of the componentsTwo years ago the ARNG Division Redesign Study recommended the conversion of approximately48000 personnel authorizations currently in ARNG combat force structure to provide requiredcombat support and combat service support forces The ARNG will convert six combat brigades19000 soldiers between FY00 and FY05 with the rest of the conversion taking place by the endof FY09

A number of other initiatives to foster a seamless relationship between the AC and the RC havereceived renewed attention as a result of the expanded employment of the reserve component inongoing missions This year two integrated divisions will be created each comprised of ARNGenhanced Separate Brigades under a division headquarters commanded by an AC major generalThe division headquarters will be responsible for training readiness and mobilization of thedivisions enhanced Separate Brigades Divisional teaming offers another way to enhance readinessby promoting a habitual and mutual support relationship between ARNG and AC divisions Eachdivision takes the lead for particular missions and the other division in the team provides personnelequipment and other agreedupon support to help accomplish the mission Incorporating ARNGcompanies into AC light infantry battalions is also under study The USAR is participating in themulticomponent unit initiatives by providing personnel and units with key combat support andcombat service support specialties For instance the Army relies on the USAR for twothirds ofits Psychological Operations capability and more than 90 percent of its Civil Affairs expertise Theredesigned heavy division includes 513 RC authorizations assigned across the division Multicomponent units and other integration initiatives will create flexible organizations able to respondto emerging threats in both the international and domestic arenas

Defense Reform Initiatives

While Total Army Integration aims to optimize effectiveness through efficient use of the activeand reserve components the Army is also striving to improve efficiency in other areas Over thelast ten years the Army has made great progress in reducing costs and increasing the effectivenessof its business processes Support for the latest DoDwide effortthe Defense Reform InitiativesDRIincludes several efficiency initiatives that are already part of our Future Years DefensePlan We are leading in the implementation of several DoD initiatives For instance the Army has

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the highest usage rate 95 percent of the Government Purchase Credit Card in DoD We are alsoa leader in implementing the DoD paperless contracting initiative and are scheduled to completefielding of the Standard Procurement Systems during the first quarter of next year Overall theArmy has reduced its cost to contract per dollar obligated by over 50 percent in the last 14 yearsDue to our own initiatives and DRI efforts the Army is programmed to achieve about 10 billionin savings over the Future Years Defense Plan Initiatives such as the Revolution in MilitaryLogistics acquisition reform A76 cost competitions and infrastructure management initiativeshave reduced costs or improved effectiveness This has enabled the Army to meet its increasedcommitments under the National Military Strategy during a period of severe personnel and budgetreductions

ValuesThis summary highlights a number of revolutionary changes and initiatives now underway tosustain readiness into the 21st century but nothing should displace the shared values that enablesoldiers to form essential bonds of trust and respect The Army must preserve the fundamentalvalues that are the bedrock for success in military operations We must continue to ensure thatAmerican soldiers embrace the essential values that have been the soul of our Army since its birthThe values of loyalty duty respect selfless service honor integrity and personal courage havebeen the hallmark of the American soldier for over 223 years The Armys Human Relations ActionPlan and Character Development XXI initiatives provide the mechanisms for ensuring that soldiersunderstand these values from their earliest days of training and have that understanding reinforcedthroughout their time in the Army The Army therefore serves the Nation not only by executingthe National Military Strategy but also through the valuerich example that soldiers and formersoldiers provide

ConclusionThe FY00 Budget addresses most of the Armys people and nearterm readiness concernsIncluded are an essential increase in funding for contingencies pay and retirement The Army iscommitted to ensuring these dollars are effectively and efficiently allocated to fix criticaldeficiencies Modernization increases are not yet possible within current resource levels howeverwe remain ready to move forward in modernization through our Force XXI processes as soon asresources can be identified We will continue to do our part to implement Defense ReformInitiatives and other costsaving measures to help generate funding for unfunded modernizationpriorities This budget represents the best possible balance of available resources applied acrossthe priorities of people readiness and modernization

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Chapter 1

Assuring Current and Future Readiness

Americas Army is the most capable Army in the world today In executing the requirementsof the National Military Strategy the Army has provided over 60 percent of the people for themajor American military operations since the end of the Cold War while receiving only onequarter of the defense budget The NMS is the right strategy for protecting Americas interestsand the Army is indispensable to the execution of the NMSThe pillars of the NMSshaping the international environment responding to crises andpreparing for an uncertain futureare an efficient way to protect our national interestsBecause the NMS addresses proactive shaping activities as well as more conventionalresponding and preparing activities this strategy offers the potential for America to protecther interests with engagement rather than relying solely on the threat of military responseThe Armys most fundamental capability is the exercise of sustained comprehensive controlover people land and natural resources the Army can therefore perform missions rangingfrom nation building to defeating enemies on the battlefield The versatility and discriminationpossible when American soldiers are on the ground make the Army the force of choice formost military operations in support of the NMSFrom Bosnia to Korea the Army continues to do the Nations heavy lifting Through theextraordinary efforts of our soldiers and Army civilians the Army executes the NMS whilemaintaining its capability for decisive response and preparing for tomorrowNonetheless resource constraints coupled with the increased pace of shaping andresponding operations required by the NMS have created concerns in the areas of peoplerecruiting and retention readiness and modernization The FY00 Budget and outyearplan provide for pay increases and for many of the Armys nearterm readiness concernsAddressing these concerns adequately precludes increasing modernization funding at thistime

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Americas Army is the best land combat forcein the world We stand ready today as ourpredecessors have for over 223 years to fightand win our nations wars Supporting themilitary strategy established by our NationalCommand Authorities we are currentlyconducting operations worldwide to promotepeace by shaping the international environmentThese operations are improving the lives ofpeople of many nations We are also keepingand enforcing the peace in a number of tenseregions where but for the presence of Americansoldiers peace would have no chance We areready and able to compel our enemies to do whatthey would otherwise not do of their own freewill to deter those who would become ourenemies to reassure our allies and friends andto support domestic authorities in times ofdisaster or other emergenciesThe Army is the largest Service component ofthe Department of Defense DoD Threeinterdependent elementsactive componentsoldiers reserve component soldiers and Armycivilianscomprise the more than 13 millionpeople that make up todays Army Eachelement makes vital contributions to the Armycapabilities needed to execute the NationalMilitary StrategyThe Armys fundamental capability itsunique contribution to joint military operationsis the exercise of comprehensive and continuouscontrol over people land and resources Oursoldiers and leaders and those who supportthem are prepared to conduct prompt andsustained operations throughout the spectrum ofmilitary operations in any environment that

Readiness The National Military Strategyand Army Capabilities

requires land forces The Army is therefore theforce of choice to support peace to deter warand to compel enemies in defense of the interestsof the United States The Army is the centralelement of our Nations military readiness a fullspectrum force of decision

Readiness for WhatTheNational Military Strategy Military readiness is a measure of the

capabilities of our military forces against therequirements those forces must satisfy Theserequirements are determined by evaluating USinterests in the context of the internationalenvironment The next steps are to develop astrategy to promote and defend those interestsdistill from the strategy the set of requiredmilitary capabilities and balance the requiredcapabilities against available resources Finallywe must take steps to acquire and maintain thecapabilities indispensable for defending ourinterests Achieving and maintaining readinessis thus a responsibility shared by the Executive

10th Mountain Division soldiers practicing specialtechniques in Bosnia

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and Legislative branches of government Inshort the Executive branch formulates both theNational Security Strategy and National MilitaryStrategy and requests funding from Congress forcapabilities deemed essential to executing theNMS We can say that we have attained anadequate level of military readiness when currentcapabilities meet or exceed the capabilitiesrequired by the NMS and the program foracquiring new or updated capabilities is keepingpace with anticipated requirements for themThe current NMS reflects the profoundchange in the international environment thatresulted from our victory in the Cold War Nolonger are we confronted with the monolithicthreat against which we assessed our readinessfor the 44 years following World War II Ratherwe are faced with a complex array of threats andchallenges that emerged in the wake of the

Soviet Unions demise Wars between rivalethnic factions the proliferation of weapons ofmass destruction and ballistic missiletechnology and a resurgence of internationalterrorism are but some of the characteristics ofthe post Cold War worldWhereas we once viewed the mission of theAmerican military largely in terms of fightingand winning mid to highintensity conflicts wenow find the military involved almostcontinuously in other types of militaryoperations including such missions as nationbuilding and peacekeeping However sincemid to highintensity conflict remains the mostdemanding mission along the spectrum ofmilitary operations we must always stand readyto fight and win our Nations wars even whileexecuting operations along the lower end of thespectrum Readiness today then must be

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assessed in terms of our ability to shape theinternational environment our effectiveness aswe execute military operations in response tocrises and our preparations to answertomorrows challenges By answering thequestion Readiness for what the NMSprovides the framework around which we buildmilitary capabilities

The NMS and Army Capabilities The first pillar of the NMS shaping theinternational environment in ways favorable toour national interests is indispensable inminimizing potential threats Shaping activitiesvary widely from efforts aimed at preventing orminimizing conflict to peacetime militaryengagement programs that stabilize andstrengthen current alliance relationships Thispillar is best supported by longterm facetofaceactivities that build friends and cement trustpromote stability in fragile societies strengthencoalitions and ensure cooperation withtraditional allies The presence of the Americansoldier on the ground is the principal method toexecute these activities Since the majority ofother nations militaries are dominated by their

armies military engagement with thesecountries is most effective through armytoarmy contact Army presence in fragilesocieties yields multiple benefits for both theArmy and the host nation it promotesnational stability and provides trainingopportunities for US soldiers who learnand teachskills that both improve thequality of life in participating nations andenhance Army readiness Americas Armyis ideally suited for and heavily engaged inthe execution of this pillar of the NMSIndeed the Armys unique and robust shapingcapabilities give it the lead role in the first pillarof the NMSTo execute the second pillar of the NMS ourmilitary must effectively respond to threats andchallenges to our national interests The Armyas the only Service that can compel and maintaindecisive results plays a critical role in thisregard In the current strategic environmentAmerica can not afford to wait for a clear threatto emerge and then rely on oceans to protect theNation while preparing an adequate responseWe must be ready to respond very quickly andwe must be ready to respond here in America aswell as wherever else our interests arethreatened To respond effectively we mustmaintain enough forces to make trained andready units available for deployment on shortnotice sufficient strategic air and sealift to

Army engineers conduct shaping activities allover the world

The soldiers of 3d Infantry Division and othersupporting units demonstrated the Armys rapidresponse capability in Kuwait

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project power rapidly and ample forwardpositioned forces and prepositioned assets to cutdown deployment times for initial responseforces Americas Army has proven time andagain over the past ten years that we can projectcombat power worldwide on short notice as wellas provide security and essential services inresponse to disasters here at homeThe third pillar of our NMS is to prepare tomeet the threats we anticipate confronting us inthe future The threats of the future may have afamiliar face as some nations or coalitions growin power and seek to challenge our interests Onthe other hand the speed of technologicaladvance presents asymmetrical threats a rival orgroup of rivals seeking to challenge our interestswith some technology weapon strategy ortactic that avoids our strengths and exploits ourvulnerabilities In either event we must preparenow to ensure that we are ready to countertomorrows threats Americas Army isimplementing a comprehensive transformationstrategy to build the informationage capabilitiesneeded to protect our interests well into the 21 stcentury while preserving current readiness Thisstrategy discussed at length in Chapter 3requires a substantial commitment of moneysoldiers and training time to develop and validatethe equipment and htmtrine that will enable us to

The Army is prepared now to fight and winour Nations wars and it continues to prepareeach day bringing unique and substantialcapabilities to the joint team Whilecontributions of air and sea power are keyenablers for decisive ground combat operations

and they facilitate the application of land powercapabilities throughout the full spectrum ofmilitary operations todays NMS isdemonstrably Armyintensive The Army has alarger forward presence than any other Servicewith more than 122000 soldiers assigned to

effectively wield new technologies on futurebattlefields Our dominance of recentbattlefields is no guarantee of future success wemust continue to generate the militarycapabilities that will dominate future battlefieldsOnly by preparing now will we maintain ourability to defend Americas interests in the faceof a complex array of rapidly evolving threatsShaping responding preparingthe NMShas been carefully tailored to protect Americaninterests in the context of the currentinternational environment The NMS is the rightstrategy and Americas Army is indispensable to its proper execution

Doing Americas Heavy LiftingThe Army and the NMS

A soldier enters data to the High Mobility ArtilleryRocket System during the Rapid Force ProjectionInitiative RFPI Field Experiment last July

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overseas bases These soldiers perform realworld missions every day from theDemilitarized Zone in Korea to Bosnia Egyptand countless other places Furthermore on anaverage day in FY98 over 28000 soldiers weredeployed away from their home stations to morethan 70 countries around the world On a dailybasis American soldiers and Army civiliansinteract with host nation soldiers officials andcitizens implement treaty requirements andrules of engagement and put a human face onthe image of America held by people all over theworld

Shaping the InternationalEnvironment

American soldiers are conducting shaping operations 24 hours a day seven days a weekThe Army shapes the international environment through the presence of our forwarddeployedforces around the world robust programs ofnationbuilding and militarytomilitaryactivities and support of arms control initiativesMost of the American soldiers stationedoverseas are assigned to US Army EuropeUSAREUR and to the 8th US Army in Koreawhere they provide the critical core of ouralliances in these strategic regions The forces ofUSAREUR represent an enduring commitmentto NATOa commitment that has been a keyfactor in providing essential stability formanaging the turbulence associated with thebreakup of the Warsaw Pact In addition to theircontribution to the Partnership for Peace PfPProgram and associated military exchanges andexercises the presence of these Americansoldiers is a key enabler to ongoing internationalefforts to maintain peace in the Balkans In

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Korea the presence of American soldiersreassures our allies and provides a potentnecessary deterrent to the unpredictable NorthKorean regime Other soldiers stationed in theUS Pacific Command and the US SouthernCommand areas of operation contribute toengagement operations in the countries of thePacific Rim and throughout Latin America andthe Caribbean In sum our substantial forwarddeployed forces shape the internationalenvironment by deterring aggression leading ourresponse to global threats and promotingstability through militarytomilitary contacts inkey regions

Keeping the Peace FY98 marked the sixteenth year of Americansupport for the Multinational Force andObservers MFO in the Sinai which verifiescompliance with the treaty of peace betweenEgypt and Israel Army soldiers serving insimilar observer and peacekeeping missionsfrom the border between Ecuador and Peru to theFormer Yugoslav Republic of MacedoniaFYROM helped foster peace in troubledregions around the world Over 300 AC and RCsoldiers also served with the United StatesSupport Group in Haiti participating inoperations centered on peacekeepinghumanitarian relief and law enforcementtraining Under the African Crisis ResponseInitiative ACRI soldiers of our SpecialOperations Forces provided peacekeepingtraining to soldiers of Mali Malawi and Ghanain FY98 This brings the total number ofcountries trained under this program to six withCote dIvoire expected to join the ranks ofArmytrained African peacekeepers in the nearfuture

Partnership for Peace Army participation in PfP and relatedexchanges and exercises in FY98 helped set thestage for the enlargement of NATO whilebuilding the foundation for cooperative effortswith nonNATO forces as well During ExercisePeace Shield 98 in September active and reservecomponent soldiers worked with soldiers fromthe Ukraine and 13 other eastern Europeancountries in a multinational brigadelevelcommand post exercise designed to improveinteroperability in peace support operations Forthe second year our soldiers also participated ina IntheSpiritof PfP training exercise withthe Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalion PfPfosters military cooperation encourages supportfor peacekeeping operations among participatingnations and showcases the professionalism andvalues of Americas Army

MilitarytoMilitary Exchanges In addition to operations and exercises the

Army participates in a wide variety of daytodayforeign interactions that contribute to shapinggoals Armytoarmy contacts constitute themajority of all cooperative activities between thearmed forces of the United States and the armedforces of other nations Last year such activitiesranged from seniorlevel contacts to the trainingof 5980 foreign military personnel under theInternational Military Education and TrainingIMET and Foreign Military Sales programs

forwarddeployed forces shape the international environment bydeterring aggression leading our response to global threatsand promoting stability through militarytomilitary contacts inkey regions

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These programs encourage other nations toparticipate in international peacekeepingmissions and offer an opportunity to mold thevalues of foreign militaries in positive waysThe Armys reserve components play a criticalrole in militarytomilitary exchanges TheNational Guard State Partnership Program forexample has been instrumental in forging closeties with the armies and governments of theformer Warsaw Pact Besides helping to shapethe international environment in line with USinterests these continuing contacts with foreignarmies enhance our ability to participate incoalition operations today and in the future

the Army conducts a wide range of activities andoperations at home and abroad in support of US governmentcounterdrug efforts

Counterdrug Efforts The National Defense Authorization Act forFY89 mandated DoD involvement incounterdrug activities In accordance withapplicable laws the Army conducts a wide rangeof activities and operations at home and abroadin support of US government counterdrugeffortsIn the domestic arena last year more than2000 AC and RC soldiers performed tasksranging from construction of fences along theborder with Mexico to providing intelligenceanalyst support to Drug Law EnforcementAgencies DLEA The ARNG provides uniquecounterdrug support to the 54 states andterritories under provisions of Title 32 Thissupport involves over 3000 people and consistsof activities such as cargo inspections and

supporting operations to reduce drug demandThe Army also provides counterdrug supportin many nations of Latin America theCaribbean and the heroin producing andtransshipping regions of southeast and southwestAsia Army counterdrug activities abroadinclude training host nation personnel by ourSpecial Operations Forces along with aviationtransportation intelligence planning andreconnaissance support In close cooperationwith other Federal agencies the Army plays akey role in our Nations fight against thistransnational threat

Supporting Arms Control andNonproliferation Other Army shaping operations promote

American interests abroad by training foreignmilitaries and by supporting our governmentsarms control and nonproliferation initiatives Insupport of our governments policy of reducingthe threat of nonself destructing antipersonnellandmines Army Special Operations Forces andExplosive Ordnance Disposal soldiers aredeployed in 19 countries around the worldThese soldiers are providing training and supportin areas such as mine awareness mine clearanceand planning To date we have led deminingefforts that have trained nearly 25 percent of theworlds deminers As the DoD Executive Agentthe Army also supports the ChemicalDemilitarization Program by continuing the safedestruction of the US lethal chemical weaponsstockpile and related nonstockpile warfaremateriel in compliance with the worldwideChemical Weapons Convention Through theseefforts Americas Army is making the world asafer place

Building Friendships American soldiers performed missions all

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over the world in FY98 Many of these missionsallowed soldiers to practice jobrelated skillswhile concurrently benefiting the host nation byimproving infrastructure or providing medicalcare for the population For example USARsoldiers provided medical care for over 116000host nation civilians while deployed on MedicalReadiness Training Exercises in five differentcountries in Latin America Other soldiersconducted similar medical training missions inSri Lanka Fiji the Maldives and MadagascarArmy engineer units conducted Civic ActionTeam engineering projects in Tonga theRepublic of Korea Micronesia Mongoliaand the Republic of Marshall IslandsOperations such as these support politicaland economic stability and build friendshipsin fragile societies that might otherwisebreed conflictThe wide range of Army operationsconducted to shape the internationalenvironment helps reduce the potential forconflict and human suffering around theworld Our soldiers and civilians moldinstitutions and attitudes giving substanceto the image of America held by people ofmany nations Support for peace operations demining programs and programs that promotecooperation through exchanges also providevaluable experience for Army personnelThrough the numerous activities discussed inthis section the Army is enhancing globalsecurity and stability the results of these shapingoperations will continue to advance our nationalsecurity and humanitarian interests in the future

Responding to Crises Abroad andat Home Americas Army responded to crises abroad

and at home in FY98 by deploying a heavybrigade to Kuwait in 96 hours conducting arelief in place of forces involved in thepeacekeeping mission in Bosnia supporting theHurricane Mitch Disaster Relief effort in CentralAmerica and supporting a wide range ofdomestic support activities These successesvalidate our fullspectrum readiness

The wide range of Army operations conducted to shapethe international environment helps to reduce the potential forconflict and human suffering

USAR soldiers treated over 116000 host nationcivilians while on medical training exercises inSouth and Central America in FY98

Two UH60 Blackhawk helicopters maneuver to atactical landing zone in central Thailand to insertsoldiers from the 25th Infantry Division for their firstday of training with the Royal Thai Army

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FullSpectrum Readiness

Maintaining the Capability toRespond The capability to respond anywhere in the world on short notice comes from our sustainedcommitment to the complex requirements offullspectrum readiness This readiness comesfrom the unmatched capabilities of Americansoldiers and the rigorous training that preparesthem for battle The readiness of soldiers todayis the product of many years investment inquality people training htmtrine force mixmodern equipment and leader developmentThese Army imperatives are discussed indetail in Chapter 2 Since we fight as a memberof a joint team and often in coalition with othernations we must also train with the othermembers of the joint team joint trainingexercises and with our allies combined trainingexercises to assure readiness for today and forthe 21st centuryThe Army executed a robust program oftraining deployments in FY98 designed tovalidate and improve our ability to deployrapidly fight and win Exercise Bright Star forinstance allowed us to practice deployingrapidly as well as conducting combinedoperations with the Egyptian military JointTask Force Exercise JTFX Purple Dragon oneof the largest exercises of the year includedparticipation by soldiers of XVIII AirborneCorps and all four of its divisions along withelements of the Navy Air Force and MarineCorps This massive exercise conducted atseveral locations in the Eastern United States theAtlantic Ocean and the Caribbean offered theunique opportunity to integrate the operations ofall Services in a scenario involving everythingfrom counterinsurgency to weapons of massdestruction In March over 500 soldiers from the Europebased V Corps and from theMinnesota National Guard participated in NATOField Training Exercise FTX Strong Resolve98 in Norway Last August soldiers fromAlaska conducted a combined training exercisewith the Thai Army that featured the largestairborne operation ever conducted in ThailandThese exercises along with a number of othersprovided invaluable deployment and trainingexperience for the soldiers and leaders involved

Responding Abroad In February 1998 the 1st Brigade of 3dInfantry Division Mechanized 3 ID M wasordered to deploy to Kuwait in conjunction withother forces sent to the region when Iraq refusedto comply with UN weapons inspections Thebrigade moved by air and utilizedprepositioned equipment to assume a readyposture within 96 hours They joined anotherbattalion from 3 ID M that was already trainingwith the Kuwaiti Land Forces An Armyheadquarters was sent to assume command of allcombined and joint forces in Kuwait On 20February the President authorized the callup of

A North Carolina ARNG soldier works on theengine of an Apache helicopter in a hanger atAli Al Salem Air Force Base in Kuwait

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RC soldiers to support military operations inSouthwest Asia As of 22 September 1998 184ARNG and 192 USAR soldiers had mobilizedfor service in Southwest Asia where theyperformed chemical detection logistics airdefense communications and aviation missionsIn support of Operation Desert Fox in Decemberthe Army once again deployed active and reservecomponent forces on short notice to augment theforces already in theater for training Thepresence of several thousand American soldierseffectively deterred any threatening activity byIraqi ground forces The successful execution ofthese operations validates our program of regulartraining deployments to key regions andunderscores the importance of integrating thereserve components rapidly in ongoingcontingenciesThe deployment of the 1st Cavalry Division last September to assume responsibility forthe US portion of the NATO peacekeepingmission in Bosnia offers another example of theArmys support for global contingencies TheEuropebased 1 st Armored Division augmentedby a significant number of individuals and unitsfrom both active and reserve component forcesin the United States provided the Americancontingent to NATO forces in Bosnia for most ofFY98 The shift to the CONUSbased 1stCavalry Division helped stabilize some Europebased units for readiness training and reducedtheir time spent away from home station orPERSTEMPO The professional execution ofthis relief in place allowed the transition to occurwithout reducing our commitment to supportingUS goals in the Balkans Reserve componentsupport is again a key factor in our success inBosnia During FY98 over 1300 RC soldierswere mobilized in support of operations thereThe US Army also provided substantial support for disaster relief efforts in the wake ofHurricane Mitch in Central America ThroughJoint Task ForceBravo and the Disaster ReliefJoint Task Force soldiers and civiliansconducted relief operations in HondurasNicaragua El Salvador and Guatemala TheXVIII Airborne Corps deployed substantiallogistics and aviation support to help with theimmediate response to this catastrophic stormARNG soldiers in the United States supportedrelief efforts by assisting with the preparation ofshipments of relief supplies Ongoing USARsupport includes a program of sequential 21daydeployments of soldiers trained in civil affairsengineer medical maintenance and supplyspecialties to the region These deployments areprojected to include as many as 8000 soldiers

Responding at Home The Army provided substantial support toFederal state and local authorities responding tonatural disasters in the United States and itsterritories last year Active US Army Reserveand National Guard soldiers along with manyArmy civilians supported Federal EmergencyManagement Agency FEMA disaster reliefefforts for Typhoon Paka Guam HurricanesBonnie North Carolina and Georges USVirgin Islands Puerto Rico Florida and the GulfCoast the Northeast Ice Storms New York andMaine and for fighting wildfires in FloridaThe Army Corps of Engineers contributedgreatly to Army disaster relief efforts Armysupport included providing and operating powergenerators flying helicopters for missions

During FY98 over 1300 RC soldiers were mobilized insupport of operations in Bosnia

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ranging from medical evacuation to damageassessment and providing emergency shelterwater ice and food Additionally on numerousoccasions in FY98 the Army providedExplosive Ordnance Disposal or TechnicalEscort Unit personnel in response to requestsfrom Federal state and local authorities forassistance in dealing with explosives orhazardous materiel Activities and responseefforts such as these validate the ability of theArmy in accordance with the law and at therequest of local authorities to respond rapidly todomestic situations as required

Preparing for an Uncertain FuturePreparing for an uncertain futureencompasses not only the widely publicizedharnessing of informationage technology tocreate a Revolution in Military Affairs but alsopreparations for countering the threats emergingfrom the activities of potential rivals Due to thescope of the Armys Modernization Plan and related programs we have reserved discussionof this aspect of preparing now for Chapter3 The remainder of this section surveysongoing Army initiatives for addressing thechallenges of terrorism threats to thehomeland and information technology

Combating Terrorism The terrorist threat demands a coherentprogram to protect our soldiers Armycivilians family members information andcritical resources at home and abroad TheArmys Antiterrorism Force Protection ATFP program is designed to meet this threat Theeffectiveness of antiterrorism programs dependto a large degree on how well response plans areintegrated amongst the appropriate Federal stateand local agencies In addition to specifyingprotective measures the ATFP program chargesinstallation commanders with the responsibilityfor ensuring connectivity with Federal statelocal and host nation law enforcement andintelligence agencies The program requiresestablishment of ATFP committees atinstallation level as the mechanism for oversightand coordination of the ATFP ProgramThe Armys AntiterrorismForce Protectionprogram provides an operational model forsafeguarding personnel information and criticalresources from the threat of terrorism Theprogram includes four levels of training tailoredto meet the requirements of groups ranging fromindividual soldiers through senior leaders Itrequires periodic installation vulnerabilityassessments to keep plans current In generalthe ATFP program ensures that our personneland leaders are aware of the threat conductcontinuous assessments of specificvulnerabilities and take steps to reduce risksthrough improving physical and operationalsecurity

The Army Corps of Engineers contributed greatly to Armydisaster relief efforts

Soldiers and Army civilians from the US Army Corpsof Engineers provided emergency power to muchof Puerto Rico in the wake of Hurricane Georges

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USAR and ARNG chemical companies and USAR medicalunits will be trained to provide an enhanced DoD responsecapability to domestic disasters involving WMD

Homeland DefenseNational Missile Defense andDomestic Preparedness The recent launch of a multistage missile by North Korea and continuing efforts by othernationstates to acquire or improve longrangemissile systems underscore the importance ofdeveloping the capability to field a nationalmissile defense NMD system The Armysupports the current joint NMD programdesigned to develop and test a landbased NMDsystem that can be operational in 2005 or sooner2003 if so directed With funding and guidancefrom DoDs Ballistic Missile DefenseOrganization BMDO the Army manages thedevelopment of the dedicated NMD groundbased elements which include the GroundBased Radar and the GroundBased InterceptorDevelopment of both elements are on scheduleFacilities for the prototype GroundBased Radarat Kwajalein Atoll are complete and the radar isnow operationalThe Secretary of the Armys role as theExecutive Agent for the DoD DomesticPreparedness program places the Army in theforefront of joint and interagency efforts toprepare our military and civilian firstresponders for incidents involving weapons ofmass destruction This program will traininstructors in 120 cities by the end of FY02giving these cities the ability to train their ownfirst responders to handle emergencies involving WMD A Federal Training Team whichincludes ARNG and USAR instructors conductsthis training As of the end of FY98 a total of9950 firstresponder trainers in 32 cities hadreceived the trainingThe Army also supports DoD efforts toimprove its ability to respond to terrorist attacksinvolving WMD in support of lead Federalagencies The Armys Technical Escort Unit andlab elements from the Soldier Biological andChemical Command are among DoD forces thatcould respond today to requests for assistanceunder the Federal Response Plan The FederalResponse Plan comes into play in this case justas in any other disasterin response to apresidential declaration of a disaster or majoremergencyThe unique status of the ARNG as a statecontrolled force unless called to Federal serviceenhances the states initial response capabilitywhile preserving the supporting role of the DoDfor domestic disaster relief Under the DoD Planfor Integrating National Guard and ReserveComponent Support for Response to AttacksUsing Weapons of Mass Destruction NationalGuard Rapid Assessment and Initial DetectionRAID detachments will be trained beginning inFY99 to provide initial response capability toWMD incidents Each of the ten detachmentsone per Federal Emergency ManagementAgency region are jointly staffed by acombination of 22 Air and Army National Guardpersonnel They assess suspected nuclearbiological chemical or radiological eventsadvise civilian responders regarding appropriateactions and expedite requests for assistancefrom state and Federal agencies to help savelives prevent human suffering and mitigateproperty damage In most cases these RAIDdetachments will remain under state controlUSAR and ARNG chemical companies and

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USAR medical units are among the elements thatwill be trained to provide an enhanced DoDresponse capability at the request of Federal leadagencies to domestic disasters involving WMD

Information Technology Challenges The Year 2000 Problem CyberDefense and Allocation of the Electromagnetic SpectrumThe global explosion of informationtechnology offers the potential for dramaticallyimproved military capabilities but reliance onthis technology also creates the challenge ofensuring its integrity Widespread systemfailures due to intentional attacks on ourinformation systems or systemic flaws are aserious threat The possibility that the oncecommon practice of referencing dates incomputer software using only two digits coulddisrupt computerbased systems in the year2000a problem known as the Year 2000 bugY2Kis one manifestation of the challengeposed by our reliance on information technologyProtecting friendly information and decisionmaking processes from intentional disruption andcommercial constraint of the electromagneticspectrum are two others Several Armyprograms aim to ensure that our informationsystems remain free from disruptionThe Army is implementing a detailed plan toensure that our weapons information systemsand information technology controlled devicesare not affected by the Y2K problem We haveidentified atrisk systems classified themaccording to their criticality and are carefullymanaging the renovation of these systems usingan Armywide database and monthly reportsFor key activities that involve the integration ofmultiple systems the Army is conducting endtoend tests as well as participating in joint testsand evaluations to ensure full systemfunctionality No Army missioncritical systems will fail due to Y2K problemsInformation Operations refers to theintegration of offensive and defensive measuresthat provide enhanced situational awareness tofriendly forces while degrading the situationalawareness of our enemies Since potentialenemies also have access to informationtechnology the Army is implementing a series ofmechanisms to protect friendly information anddecision making processes from intentionaldisruption Improvements undertaken in supportof this approach include the addition ofInformation Operations capabilities at divisionlevel and above installation of intrusiondetection devices and the development ofregional Computer Emergency Response Teamsin both the active and reserve componentsMany modern warfighting systems depend onthe electromagnetic spectrum making access tothis spectrum an important resource forinformationage warfare Recent globalinitiatives to auction this limited resource as acommodity constrain military use of thespectrum for operations and for training Thisdevelopment has made spectrum management animportant consideration for military planners

No Army missioncritical systems will fail due to Y2Kproblems

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Resource ConcernsThe capabilities needed to execute theNational Military Strategy are the yardstick formilitary readiness For the Army our vital andsubstantial role in shaping the internationalenvironment responding and preparing for thefuture require a sustained commitment toachieving readiness by generating andmaintaining Army capabilities While we remainready today constrained funding is stretching thefabric of our Army creating concerns in the areasof people readiness and modernization Chapter5 discusses these concerns in detail they areoutlined in this section because they provideimportant context for the discussions of Armycapabilities modernization and quality of life inChapters 2 through 4Over the past several months Army leadershave consulted with the Administration andtestified before Congress regarding readinessThe Army requested a 5 billion annual increasein Total Obligation Authority TOA due toconcerns centered chiefly on recruiting andretention current readiness and modernizationThe efforts of the Administration and Congressto provide additional funding in the form of aFY99 supplemental funding measure and thePresidents FY00 Budget and outyear plan haveaddressed many of these concernsOur concerns in the area of people stem fromincreasing difficulties recruiting and retainingsufficient numbers of high quality youngAmericans for military service The Army mustrecruit almost 180000 new recruits each year toprovide enough trained soldiers to meetrequirements We must also retain enoughexperienced soldiers across the full range ofMilitary Occupational Specialties MOS tocontinue producing quality midgrade and seniorlevel leaders The robust economy has created significant competition for the population weseek to recruit and retainEven though our firsttofight units aretrained and ready today this state of readinesscan dissipate rapidly if not properly sustainedReports that units are arriving at CTCs at lowerlevels of proficiency than in the past underscorethe need to fund trainingrelated accountsadequately and to protect unit training timeProviding funds for contingency operationsbefore the Army has to divert training funds tocover costs is part of the solution Adequatefunding for Base Operations and Real PropertyMaintenance accounts will also help protecttraining funds from migrating to cover severedeficiencies in infrastructure or quality of life

Assuring readiness for today and for the 21st century requiresquality people adequate re sources and modern equipment

The Army has accepted risk in itsmodernization accounts in order to fund currentreadiness accounts at acceptable levels in recentyears Over 100 major programs have beenterminated or restructured since 1987 and Armymodernization funding has decreased by 44percent since 1989 The current rates ofrecapitalization and procurement are too slow tokeep pace with aging fleets in many casesProcurement programs are funded at minimumsustaining rates rather than at more economical rates While equipment serviceability ratesremain high older equipment is more expensiveand more timeintensive to maintain Thegreatest challenge facing the Army today is totake care of people and meet current readiness

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demands while continuing to prepare for thefuture with constrained resourcesAssuring readiness for today and for the 21stcentury requires quality people adequateresources and modern equipment Providing theresources to address current readiness concerns

Conclusion The Army is meeting the challenge of successfully executing numerous activities exercises andoperations around the world that are essential to national security At the same time we have thecapability today to respond fight and win on short notice We are stretched by current resourceconstraints and our readiness levels are declining Today however the Army is executing the NMSand has the capabilities to fight and win the Nations warsThe NMS is the strategy that defines readiness for the United States military The current strategyrequires forces committed to proactive shaping activities more traditional responding activities andpreparing activities made essential by the uncertain geostrategic environment and the wide rangeof potential threats The NMS answers the question Readiness for whatThe Army conducts shaping activities all over the world These activities cover a broad rangefrom training other nations militaries in the conduct of peacekeeping operations to providingcounterdrug support to authorities here at home The Army is ready to respond on short noticeanywhere in the world to protect US interests through the unique powers of its land forcesAmerican soldiers deployed twice to Kuwait in FY98 as well supporting disaster relief efforts acrossthe United States in both the Pacific and the Caribbean and in Central America While conductingthese activities the Army also pursued a number of programs and initiatives to prepare for the futureProviding substantial support to the DoDs efforts to enhance consequence management for WMDattacks implementing measures to secure its information systems and striving to modernize withintight fiscal constraints are some of the major ways the Army is preparing to secure the interests ofthe US in the futureWhile the NMS is the right strategy to maximize the potential for global stability the rapid paceof operations and fiscal constraints of the past several years have given rise to indications that Armyreadiness is in decline The Armys senior leaders have identified the need for an additional 5billion in annual TOA increases in order to reverse the effects of this decline and preserve essentialreadiness The current budget request addresses many of the Armys most pressing concernsespecially in the areas of taking care of people and sustaining current readiness

Let us recollect that peace or war will not always be left to our option that however moderate or unambitious we may be we cannot count upon the moderation or hope to extinguish theambition of othersAlexander Hamilton

is important and the FY00 budget proposal doesthat to a large degree The FY00 Budgetrepresents the best possible balance of availableresources applied across the priorities of peoplereadiness and modernization

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Chapter 2

Generating Capabilities for the FullSpectrum of Military Operations

The defense of our national interests requires a broad range of military capabilities thatAmericas Army is wellsuited to provide Each component branch and organization has arole to play in generating the Armys capabilities The six imperativesquality people trainingforce mix htmtrine modern equipment and leader developmentare the framework the Armyuses to manage this process By maintaining a complementary relationship among theimperatives the Army optimizes its readiness Training standards for instance should reflectthe current Army htmtrine and the equipment that soldiers are using to train If this relationshipholds soldiers gain confidence from meeting relevant standards units operate harmoniouslyusing common htmtrine and equipment is employed to best effect Conversely the failure tomaintain a complementary relationship among the imperatives results in a less effective forceAchieving this complementary relationship is called synchronizing the imperatives The Armyis a system of systems Its systems work together to produce a force capable of performing thetasks required to execute the NMS

The Army Vision The Army Vision sets the azimuth for the Total Army It guides our execution of the National MilitaryStrategy today and our evolution to meet the challenges of tomorrow

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The twin realities of the postCold War worlddiverse almost continuous global challenges andfiscal constraintshave led to a careful examinationof the force structure of todays Total Army whichconsists of the active component the reservecomponents ARNG and USAR and Armycivilians We have programmed endstrengths foreach of these components based on QuadrennialDefense Review QDR recommendations and a series of analyses of Army requirements andstructure known as Total Army Analyses Bycomparing possible scenarios with the forcesavailable to respond to contingencies Total ArmyAnalyses offer a mechanism for determining theproper size of the Army Analysis indicates thatfurther endstrength reductions beyond those alreadydirected will place our ability to execute the NMSat greater risk Current endstrengths make the The values we refer to in our vision are the Armyvalues of loyalty duty respect selfless servicehonor integrity and personal courage They are thevalues we have inherited from the American soldierswho from the birth of our Nation have fulfilled ouroath to support and defend the Constitution of the United States They are stamped on a tag wornwith the personal identification of each soldier Justas our personal identification tags identify usindividually our Army Vision is the collectivestatement of who we are

AC RC and Army Civilians
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contributions of each component vital for effectiveArmy operations These contributions are evidentfrom Bosnia to Korea Every day all over theworld soldiers and civilians are forging the TotalArmys broad range of capabilities by practicing andexecuting tasks required to carry out the NMS

The Active Component At the end of FY98 the active component consisted of 484000 soldiers AC soldiers make upthe bulk of the four corps ten divisions and SpecialOperations Forces that are the nucleus of the ArmyThe AC also provides most of the soldiers who fillthe Armys staff positions and perform myriad otherfulltime duties such as facilitating training at theCombat Training Centers providing cadre to theArmys institutional training program or serving asadvisors to reserve component units OurOCONUS forces not only provide a forwardpositioned capability to respond to threats worldwidebut also reassure allies and deter potential adversariesby providing tangible evidence of Americas commitment to global security The active componentwas below its programmed endstrength at the endof FY98 and will continue to manage its endstrengthto meet the QDRprogrammed level of 480000 bythe end of FY99

The Reserve Components Comprising 54 percent of the Total Army theRC is made up of the ARNG and USAR Theseforces include a significant percentage of soldierswith critical specialties necessary to sustain andsupport Army forces during lengthy deploymentsThere are three major categories of reserve servicethe Ready Reserve the Standby Reserve and theRetired Reserve The Ready Reserve is furtherorganized into the Selected Reserve the IndividualReady Reserve and the Inactive Army NationalGuard All of these reserve categories may becalled to active service in time of a national or forthe ARNG state emergencyOne mechanism for activating RC soldiers is thePresidential Selected Reserve Callup PSRC Byauthority of the PSRC the President may activateas many as 200000 RC soldiers for periods up to270 days Under the Bosnia PSRC six incrementsof RC soldiers totaling 570 units and 16434soldiers were activated from 1995 to 1998 Anothermechanism for activating reserve forces is Section12302 of Title 10 Partial Mobilization whichauthorizes the involuntary callup of reservists for upto 24 months Under provisions for full mobilizationreservists may be called up for indefinite periods oftime following the passage of a public law or jointresolution declaring war or national emergency byCongress The importance of the RCscontributions to Army operations makes theprovisions governing activation of the reservecomponents key enablers to the execution of theNMSThe Armys increasing reliance on reservecomponent participation in ongoing contingencyoperations underscores a key readiness principle forthe 21 st Century protecting Americas interestsamidst a range of threats and challenges will requireconstant and efficient utilization of the Total ForceLast year the Armys White Paper One Team One

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Fight One Future provided a framework forbetter integrating active and reserve forces Thespecific initiatives the Army is implementingdescribed in Chapter 3 are moving us towards ourgoal of a seamless Total Army

The Army National Guard The nucleus of the ARNG consists of combat formations comprising 58 percent of the Armyscombat force organized into eight divisions eighteenseparate brigades and two Special Forces GroupsAdditionally the ARNG comprises 38 percent of theCombat Support and 33 percent of the CombatService Support at echelons above division TheArmy National Guard is the component with mostof the RC combat formations National Guard unitsare commanded by their state governors unless federalized by the President ARNG endstrength willbe 350000 by the end of FY00

Current endstrengths makethe contributions of eachcomponent vital

The United States Army Reserve The US Army Reserve provides 45 percent ofthe Armys Combat Service Support and 26 percent of the Combat Support forces at echelons abovedivision The logisticsheavy composition of theUSAR makes it a vital part of the Total Armys forceprojection and sustainment capability and allows theAC and ARNG to devote more force structure tocombat forces The USAR has provided over 70 percent of RC forces deployed to Bosnia since1995 The 208000 soldiers of the USAR SelectedReserve serve in troop program units as ActiveGuardReserve or as Individual MobilizationAugmentees Additionally the USAR maintains apool of 225000 personnel Individual Ready Reserve with prior military training that may be calledupon to augment standing forces The USAR willreduce its Selected Reserve endstrength to 205000by the end of FY00

Army Civilians At the end of FY98 over 232000 civilianswere performing important functions on Armyinstallations and staffs worldwide The experienceand perspective civilians bring to the Army facilitateefficient effective operations and training Inaddition to filling key billets on staffs Army civiliansmanage training facilities monitor environmentalcompliance and oversee or perform work in safetyforce projection force modernization and otherimportant functions affecting readiness and quality oflife at installations worldwide Since our soldiers

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and leaders change jobs frequently as part of theirprogression through the ranks our civilians providevaluable continuity and assist the transition of newlyassigned personnel in key areas Army civilianendstrength will decrease to 209000 by the end ofFY05

The experience andperspective civilians bring tothe Army facilitate efficienteffective operations andtraining

Army civilians receive training with other personnel priorto deploying to Bosnia

At the end of FY98 American soldiers made upnearly half of the 23 million men and women servingin the active and reserve components of our armedforces These soldiers along with the Armyscivilians are distributed between two majorfunctionally distinct groups of organizations thatmany refer to as the institutional Army and theoperational Army. Both of these groups playimportant roles in generatingland power capabilities Theinstitutional Army provides thestructure that supports theoperational Armys conduct ofmilitary operations and trainingCounting soldiers assigned fortraining about 36 percent ofthe Total Army serve ininstitutional assignments at anygiven time the remainder areassigned to the operationalforces comprising the Armycomponent of the jointwarfighting commands or toreserve component units

Institutional and Operational Forces Institutional and operational organizations performcomplementary functions that together generate thecapabilities needed to support the NMSThe institutional portion of the Army consistsprimarily of the Army Staff Training and DoctrineCommand TRADOC Army Materiel CommandAMC the US Army Medical Command andthe US Army Corps of Engineers These elements

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are largely based in the United States Under thedirection of the Secretary of the Army and the Chiefof Staff the institutional Army provides strategicguidance and administrative leadership for theArmy Institutional organizations also recruit andtrain individual soldiers and officers developcommon htmtrine for the Total Army sustain theforce and prepare the Army for the future Themajor organizations comprising the institutionalportion of the Army are shown in the figure on thepreceding pageThe major warfighting elements of theoperational Army are its corps divisions andseparate brigades These combat units and theirsupporting elements are the deployable forces thatexecute the full spectrum of military operationsmany are based overseas Operational units ofdifferent types are grouped together to make themost effective use of the different functional skillsand equipment characteristic of these different unitsThe sample divisional grouping of light infantryartillery aviation and other units shown on the nextpage illustrates this principle Combat support unitsadd specific functional capabilities such as engineersupport or air defense to combined arms

Experienced NCOs arecarefully selected to servetours as Drill Sergeants inthe institutional Armytraining soldiers foroperational units

organizations Combat service support CSS orlogistics units are normally grouped under a supportcommand Tables of Organization and EquipmentTOE define each type of unit by specifying thesubordinate units and equipment that the unit isauthorized These generic organizations can betemporarily adjusted or taskorganized to meetthe requirements of specific missionsThe Army provides capabilities for the executionof the NMS by apportioning operational forcesamong the joint combatant commands AtlanticCommand ACOM Central CommandCENTCOM European Command EUCOMPacific Command PACOMSouthern Command SOUTHCOM and Special Operations Command SOCOMForces may be shifted betweencombatant commands basedon the requirements ofparticular contingencies Inaccordance with the Department of Defense Reform Actof 1986 the chain of commandfor these forces runs directlyfrom the President through theSecretary of Defense to theCommandersinChiefCINCs of the joint warfighting commands

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As the worlds preeminent ground combat forceAmericas Army brings a wide range of uniquecapabilities to the Joint Team and to our Nation Oursoldiers and their leaders are prepared to conductprompt and sustained operations throughout theentire spectrum of military operations in anyenvironment that requires landforce capabilitiesFrom our heavy and light divisions and brigades toour Special Operations Forces the Army is thefoundation of our national military power because ofour unique capabilities the scale and duration atwhich we can effectively employ these capabilitiesand our Nations capability to project and sustaincombat power

Conventional Forces The Army maintains six heavy divisions in its activecomponent and four heavy divisions in the ArmyNational Guard The ARNG also has seven heavyenhanced Separate Brigades eSB and an ArmoredCavalry Regiment These divisions brigades andregiments employ tanks and infantry fighting vehiclessupported by artillery and attack helicopters todefeat enemy forces and to seize and hold keyterrain Like much of our Army heavy divisions havebeen extensively used in peace operations in recentyears in fact our heavy divisions have executed mostof the requirements of the peacekeeping mission inBosniaArmy light infantry forces are wellsuited for operations in restrictive terrain such as in cities mountains jungles and swamps They are capable ofconducting largescale helicopter assaults the 101stAirborne Division Air Assault specializes in theseoperations The 82d Airborne Division is the Armysonly division that retains the capability to conductlargescale parachute assaults Light infantry unitsparticipate in a wide range of operations including

Total Army CapabilitiesThe Army brings a widerange of unique capabilities to the jointteam and to our NationAt left two Abramstanks maneuver inrugged Korean terrainBelow a soldier distributes mine awarenessmaterials to children inBosnia

support for the peacekeeping mission in Bosnia andfor the Multinational Force and Observer mission inthe Sinai Currently there are four Active component light divisions one ARNG light division andseven light ARNG enhanced Separate Brigades TheARNG also maintains three divisions with a mix ofheavy and light force structure

Special Operations Forces The Army provides the bulk of our nationsSpecial Operations capabilities through the SpecialForces Civil Affairs Psychological Operations andother Special Operations units of both the active andreserve components Army Special OperationsForces currently consist of seven Special Forces

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Groups five AC and two ARNG one AviationRegiment one Ranger Regiment threePsychological Operations Groups one AC twoUSAR four Civil Affairs Commands USAReight Civil Affairs Brigades USAR and 25 CivilAffairs battalions one AC tactical battalion 24USAR battalions Special Operations Forcesinclude specially organized equipped and trainedunits prepared to conduct a wide range of missionsincluding counterterrorism missions such ashostage rescue attack of terrorist infrastructure andrecovery or neutralization of stolen or improvisednuclear biological or chemical weapons TheSpecial Operations Aviation Regiment providesaviation support for the full range of SpecialOperations missionsSpecial Forces Groups combine subject matterexpertise in many functional areas of ground combatwith indepth knowledge of the languages andcultures of specific regions The Green Berets inthese units specialize in training the forces of othernations in a broad range of operational skills TheRanger Regiment provides the capability ofconducting precision raids and other direct actionmissions including securing port and airfield facilitiesby parachute airborne assault

Army PsychologicalOperations unitslike this USARloudspeaker team inHaiti have beendeployed frequentlyin recent years

Some of the most heavily deployed soldiers inour Army in recent years have been those in thePsychological Operations and Civil Affairs unitsThese units offer unique capabilities such asproviding specially trained liaison teams to workwith foreign governments and nongovernmentalorganizations broadcast and print media in austeretheaters expertise on infrastructure requirementsand status in an operational area and information tohost nation populations to facilitate ongoingoperations Army Special Operations Forces arethe only source for many functional skills they areimportant contributors to our substantial shaping andresponding capabilities

Other Unique Capabilities In addition to these broad categories of units theArmy also has a wide array of logistics and specialfunction support units designed to provide food fuelengineer and communications support and otherresources to military forces operating inaustere areas Besides providing theessential sustainment and support forArmy combat operations these unitsgive the Army an unmatched capabilityto support most of the shaping andresponding operations ongoing in theworld today From purifying water forRwandan refugees to providingtemporary power generation capabilityin the wake of Hurricane Georges ourlogistical and special function supportunits are used extensively across the fullspectrum of military operations

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Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Units provide areliable way to purify water

While the tasks and missions Army forces canperform are in many ways unique the scale on whichthe Army can perform these missions anywhere inthe world is itself a unique capability With significantnumbers of soldiers stationed overseas and anothersix divisions able to deploy from their bases in theUnited States our Army is capable of projectingoverwhelming combat power These forces are fullyoccupied with the many readinessrelated activitiesassociated with executing the NMS and we havereduced Army force structure to the minimumrequired for executing the NMS with acceptable riskHowever the fact that we are the largest source ofland combat power available for sustained globalemployment makes Americas Army particularlyvaluable to the Nation

Power Projectionthe Army Strategic Mobility ProgramCurrent contingency plans require mobilitysupport to deploy three divisions into a theater ofoperations within 30 days of notification withanother two divisions plus sustainment arriving in thenext 45 days The Army Strategic Mobility ProgramASMP is a comprehensive program that addressesinfrastructure requirements such as rail highwayport and airfield improvements to facilitatemovement of personnel and equipment from basesin the continental United States to air and sea portsof embarkation Infrastructure and equipmentimprovements focus on designated CONUS PowerProjection Platforms including 15 installations 14airfields 17 strategic seaports and 11 ammunitiondepots and plantsUnder ASMP the Army also monitors theprocurement of C17 Globemaster III aircraft by theAir Force and additional RollOnRollOff ROROships by the Navy to correct the shortfall in strategiclift identified in the last Mobility Requirements StudyCurrently 47 of the required 134 C17s have beendelivered The Navy has awarded contracts for 19 Large Medium Speed RollOnRollOff LMSRships eight of them have been deliveredEventually eight of these ships will be used forafloat prepositioning and the other 11 to increasesurge sealift capabilityThe Armys Global Prepositioning Strategy further strengthens rapid deployment capabilities byprepositioning heavy brigade sets of unit equipmentin different strategic regions of the world ArmyMateriel Command currently manages sevenprepositioned Brigade sets with an eighth plannedOne set is prepositioned afloat ready for rapidtransport to likely crisis areas The combination ofthe Armys investments in infrastructure and the procurement requirements identified by the MobilityRequirements Study significantly enhance theArmys rapid powerprojection capability

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Generating the Total Army capabilities toexecute the NMS requires both the resourcesCongress provides to the Total Army and theprocess that the Army uses to turn those resourcesinto readiness We need quality people andequipment time and money to build the necessarycapabilities We build these capabilities byintegrating and synchronizing the six majorcomponents of Total Army readiness qualitypeople training force mix htmtrine modernequipment and leader development We call thesethe six imperativesEach imperative affects and is affected by theother five imperatives Allowing any one of theimperatives to get out of sync with the others canhave major repercussions for readinessConversely when the imperatives are properlysynchronized over time the Army truly maximizesthe military capabilities produced for the dollarsspent

Quality People The Army must recruit about 180000 soldiersannually which is more than the recruiting needs ofthe other Services combined We use threeprincipal criteria to monitor the quality of the soldiersentering our ranks One of these is the level ofeducation of our recruits Our goal is to have 90percent of the total number of recruits enter servicewith high school diplomas The second criterion isthe Armed Forces Qualification Test AFQT scorethat soldiers achieve on the Armed ServicesVocational Aptitude Battery ASVAB astandardized test administered to determineenlistment eligibility and Military OccupationalSpecialty MOS assignment qualifications TheArmy goal is for 67 percent of our enlistees toachieve scores placing them in the top threecategories Categories IIIIA on the ASVAB The

Synchronizing the Six Imperativesfinal criterion is to accept no more than two percentof recruits with AFQT scores in Category IV thelowest acceptable categoryMaintaining a force capable of executingdemanding missions is contingent on our ability torecruit and retain high quality people like those whocomprise our current force We need peoplecapable of learning and growing with the informationtechnologies that are driving the Revolution inMilitary Affairs and changing the way we willoperate Besides the challenges of newtechnologies todays soldiers must exercise maturejudgment under stressful circumstances Thesoldiers keeping and enforcing the peace innumerous locations around the world must be ableto understand the diplomatic and operationalcontext of their actions to operate effectively Atany moment any soldier performing these sensitiveduties could be confronted with a problem ofstrategic significance The reality of instantaneousnews and information transmission makes everysoldier an ambassador for Americapotentially toa global audienceTodays Army is a force of great quality Ninetypercent of the enlisted forces have graduated fromhigh school and over 99 percent have at least highschool equivalency About 60 percent of the active

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component enlisted force have some college creditThe jobs these soldiers must perform demandincreasing levels of technical expertise andjudgment The people capable of meeting thischallenge are sought after by colleges and are in highdemand in the commercial sector In order toattract and retain the high quality people we willneed to lead the 21stcentury Army we must takeaggressive steps to keep military service competitivewith other career options

Training We build and validate the current readiness ofour units by executing tough realistic training Sincemid to highintensity conflict remains the mostdemanding mission along the spectrum of militaryoperations the most important measure of readinessfor a particular unit is its ability to perform theessential tasks it would most likely have to performin this type of conflict Different types of unitsperform different essential tasks therefore theArmy has a generic Combined Arms TrainingStrategy CATS for each type of unit The CATSfor a tank battalion task force forinstance provides the recommendedfrequency for tank battalions andhabitually associated units to conducttraining on various key tasks specific tothose type units Unit training is currentlyfunded through Operational Tempoaccounts based on the amount of moneyrequired to execute the unit CATSUnits must complete certain types oftraining periodically to maintain theirreadiness This training is conductedunder a variety of rigorous conditionsoften with observers from like units toprovide feedback on unit performanceSince units experience a constant turnoverof personnel due to soldiers leaving the Army or moving to new jobs the ability of a unit toperform complex missions is perishable Based ona number of factors such as the number of essentialtasks the unit has performed recently the level ofproficiency demonstrated on those tasks and theamount of turnover the unit has experiencedcommanders make a subjective assessment of theirunits readinessTodays Army relies increasingly upon trainingsimulators and simulations to augment live trainingand optimize the level of training achieved per dollarspent Rather than actually maneuvering a group ofBradley Fighting Vehicles in actual terrain livetraining some tasks may be practiced usingnetworked simulators The simulators providesome of the training benefit while minimizing thecosts of fuel and maintenance associated with livetraining Simulators and simulations allow repetitivestructured training and facilitate evaluation of trainingto a common standard They allow for the conductof training under increasingly difficult simulatedconditions and are an efficient way to prepare formore costly live trainingPeriodic rotations at our CTCs provide an

Periodic livefire exercises involving coordinating the maneuverofground forces supported by artillery and air support are part of CATS

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outstanding opportunity to hone essential skills Atthe National Training Center in California the JointReadiness Training Center in Louisiana theCombined Maneuver Training Center in Germanyand the Battle Command Training Program inKansas units conduct prolonged operations againsta highly skilled opposing force A professionalcadre fully versed in the latest htmtrine observesand critiques unit performance at each centerThe maneuver CTCs provide training as close toreal combat conditions as possible Units deployand conduct operations while immersed in a trainingenvironment that closely replicates the likelyconditions of low to highintensity conflictExtensive use of civilian role players and trainingaids devices simulators and simulations TADSSdedicated opposing forces and observercontrollersensure the CTCs offer the most realistic preparationpossible for threats ranging from terrorism to fullscale combat Units complete these rotations muchmore proficient at critical skills than they were at theoutset Each unit receives a comprehensiveassessment to guide their future trainingIn general each maneuver CTC conducts 10brigade rotations per year US Army Reserve andArmy National Guard soldiers participate in almostall of these rotations to some extent and somerotations are devoted to ARNG enhanced SeparateBrigades Last year alone more than 143000soldiers trained at either the National Training Centerin California the Joint Readiness Training Center inLouisiana or the Combat Maneuver Training Centerin GermanyThe key to great training at CTCs and Armybases around the world is the execution of welldefined tasks under prescribed conditions to clearlyarticulated standards The conditions must berealistic for the training to be meaningful Soldiersmust be able to meet the Army standard under suchconditions in order to be considered trained For soldiers who will serve in genderintegrated unitsworking with soldiers of opposite gender is a keyaspect of training realismit is one of the conditionsunder which these soldiers will conduct actualmilitary operations Genderintegrated basic trainingis important preparation for that portion of theArmys recruits that will go to mixed units Units areteams and soldiers learn to perform their duties bestwhen they are trained from their first days of serviceto understand and respect other members of theirteam

Force Mix The size and mix of forces in the Total Armyrelates to the capabilities required by the NMS incomplex ways Most obviously we must maintainsufficient trained and ready forces to respond toglobal contingencies or domestic emergencies onshort notice while simultaneously executingsustained peopleintensive operations such asOperation Joint Forge in Bosnia Furthermore theArmy must dedicate adequate forces to conduct theexperimentation necessary to prepare forinformationage warfare The force mix must allowall units to conduct required readiness training inaddition to their operational missions It mustprovide an adequate buffer to account for thatconstant portion of our force that is eithertransitioning from one assignment to anotherundergoing initial entry training or attending schoolsto prepare for increased responsibilities Finally wemust maintain an adequate framework of people andorganizations to perform the Total Armysinstitutional functions Among its other missions theinstitutional Army recruits and trains soldiers in themany skills needed for the Army as a wholeMaintaining the right number of soldiers trained in the511 specialty skills the Army requires while achievingan optimal distribution of skills throughout the forceis a difficult task Currently about 36 percent of the

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Armys forces serve in institutional assignmentsAny discussion of Total Army force mix mustaddress the critical fact that more than half ofAmericas Army resides in the reserve componentsArmy National Guard and United States ArmyReserve soldiers are deployed around the worldevery day performing missions in support of theNMS These soldiers deploy with their units and asindividual augmentees to AC units While theARNG and USAR still provide the basis for rapidlyexpanding the Armys available forces in anemergency they are playing an important role inongoing contingency operations as wellBased on recent experience we are increasingthe integration of active and reserve forces througha variety of programs discussed fully in Chapter 3and will deploy the headquarters of the 49 thArmored Division ARNG to participate inOperation Joint Forge next year Since reservecomponent soldiers balance their military service tothe Nation with fulltime jobs as civilians it isimportant to structure their participation in ongoingcontingencies to provide soldiers and theiremployers with the predictability necessary toproperly manage this balance Both the USAR andARNG make critical contributions to our readinessat home and abroad every day thus adequatelysized and resourced reserve components are anintegral part of the Total Armys ability to executethe NMS

RC forces are an important part of the Total Armysforce mix

Doctrine Army htmtrine describes how the Army fightsestablishes the standards for how we train to fightand details the procedures for caring for Armyequipment It also defines and outlines the needs ofthe future force To maintain efficiency any requiredrevisions to existing htmtrine should precede thefielding of major new pieces of equipment or theimplementation of new organizational designs Thisallows time for training Army leaders on how toconduct operations to maximize the effect of thenew system or organization as well as ensuring thatthe soldiers receiving new equipment have time toreceive training on how to operate and maintain itproperlyArmy Battle Laboratories help keep htmtrinecurrent The Army began forming BattleLaboratories in 1992 as a means for the Trainingand Doctrine Command TRADOC to streamlineits mission of identifying concepts and requirementsfor new htmtrine training leader developmentorganizations materiel and soldier systems Todaythere are 11 Battle Laboratories each focused onspecific functional areas that contribute to theapplication of effective land combat power Eachyear these Battle Labs team with industry toevaluate mature technologies from industrial researchand development centersSince their inception the Battle Labs have beenthe focal points for nine Advanced WarfightingExperiments AWE AWEs are largescale forceonforce training exercises conducted by actualunits either live at maneuver training centers or with

Both the USAR and ARNGmake critical contributions toour readiness at home andabroad every day

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computerdriven simulations These experimentsprovide the critical analysis essential tosynchronizing htmtrine force structure equipmentand training

Modern Equipment Maintaining the Armys capability to fight and winour Nations wars requires modern equipmentEnsuring that Americas military forces have betterequipment than any potential adversaryaprerequisite for the combination of training andsuperior equipment that creates combatovermatchhelps deter potential aggressorsCombat overmatch will contribute to shorter warsand fewer casualties The Army has acomprehensive modernization plan designed tomaintain combat capability greater than that of anypotential adversary While this plan is discussed indetail in Chapter 3 the highlights presented hereillustrate the relationship between modernequipment and the other imperatives of readinessImminent and revolutionary changes in theconduct of military operations make it critical for theUnited States to field systems that can capitalize oninformation technology Such systems make itpossible to keep friendly forces constantly up todate on where they are where the enemy is andwhere other friendly units are By enabling thissituational awareness systems incorporatinginformation technology allow units to achieve greatereffectiveness on the battlefield Informationtechnologies are significant for military logistics aswell Here by giving logisticians a current status ofwhat is available and what is required modernsystems can greatly improve both efficiency and effectiveness The Revolutions in Military Affairsand Military Logistics made possible by informationtechnologies are discussed in greater detail inChapter 3Digitization refers to the fielding of equipment and to equipment modifications that provideinformation dominance This capability will allow allUS and other friendly forces to share an accurateconstantly updated common view of the entirebattlefield enabling them to act faster than theenemy can react The Armys digitization strategyincludes experimentation evaluation and acquisitionto achieve specific results equipping the firstdigitized division by the end of FY00 and the firstdigitized corps by the end of FY04 Army XXIthe force with the fielded information dominancecapabilityis a critical step to maintain combatovermatch while maturing the technology requiredfor the revolutionary force of the next century theArmy After Next AANModernization requires a significant investmentof soldiers to conduct the training experimentsnecessary for the development of new systems andhtmtrine Recent Advanced WarfightingExperiments have been key elements for ensuringthat our htmtrine leader development and forcestructure are synchronized with the introduction ofnew equipment Experiments have guided theHeavy Division Redesign that will be the blueprintfor the 4 th Infantry Division Mechanized Thisredesign explained in detail in Chapter 3encompasses the integration of reserve componentsoldiers and units as well as a dramatic reduction inthe number of main combat systems tanks andinfantry fighting vehicles The reduction in numbersof tanks and infantry fighting vehicles in the newheavy division is possible because of the increasedcapabilities that digitization brings to the force thesecapabilities were validated by experimentationThe imperative of modern equipment involvesmore than the integration of new systems withenhanced capabilities discussed above It is alsoimportant to recapitalize existing systems to accountfor the wear and aging that is a normal part of thelife cycle of any piece of equipment It often takes

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As equipment ages it takesmore time to maintain andcosts more money to operateand maintain than newerequipment Unless properlymanaged through recapitalization the additionalcosts associated with thisphenomenon could make itincreasingly difficult to findthe funds to modernize

more money and time to maintain older equipmentthan new equipment The inefficiency of failing torecapitalize existing systems drains critical dollarsaway from other Army requirements includingresearch and development of nextgenerationsystems which degrades our ability to maintaincombat overmatch in the long term A balancedlongterm approach to modernization is important toprovide the Army with the equipment necessary toassure readiness

Leader Development The senior leaders who will have to trainmaintain and fight the Army After Next are now inour ranks We must train these leaders to becomfortable with information technologies so theycan maximize the effects of those technologieswithout being overwhelmed by the high volume ofinformation We must also constantly scrutinize theroles of officer warrant officer andnoncommissioned officer NCO leaders in thefuture organizations of Army XXI and the ArmyAfter Next Only by continually assessing theimplications of new technologies for the rolesleaders will play on future battlefields can we ensure that we provide our future leaders with theskills and knowledge they will need to fight and winLeader development in the Army isaccomplished through institutional trainingoperational assignments and selfdevelopmentDifferent training courses conducted by theinstitutional Army prepare officers and NCOs forspecific levels of responsibility in units by teachingthe htmtrine and basic skills which leaders at thatlevel must have Operational assignments allowleaders to put what they have learned into practiceFinally the shared conviction that the militaryprofession requires special commitment motivatesselfdevelopment programs that are a keycontributor to leader confidence and successAccomplishing all of this intensive preparationwhile maintaining the ability to shape and respondrequires a new way of thinking about leaderdevelopment The technologies that are reshapingour world offer opportunities for revolutionizingmilitary professional education programs by fullyexploiting distance learning to supplement or replaceother educational techniques Distance learningrelies on information technology to bring theclassroom to the student With distance learning

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technology we can makeleader development acontinuous process withsignificantly enhancedopportunities for selfdevelopment We will blenddistance learning and periodicinstitutional training at Armyschools with intensive orainingand mentoring in units todevelop the warriorleadersof the 21st century

Conclusion The Army is a Total Force comprised of active and reserve component soldiers and Army civiliansWe have extensive capabilities for conducting military operations throughout the full spectrum of militaryoperations and we generate these capabilities by synchronizing the six imperatives of quality people training htmtrine force structure modern equipment and leader development Our contribution to nationalsecurity rests on the quality of the American soldiers and civilians who make up the Total Army

Without readiness in necessary land forces all socalled retaliatory and even defensive plans are mere scraps of paperPresident Dwight D Eisenhower

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Chapter 3Readiness for the 21st CenturyKnowing What to Change

The Army is executing a comprehensive plan for achieving fullspectrum dominance inthe 21st century The likely requirements of future national security strategy are the foundation of our plan for future readiness From these anticipated requirements Joint Vision 2010establishes the conceptual template for Americas armed forces in the 21st century ArmyVision 2010 identifies the capabilities required to ensure our Army remains ready to conductprompt and sustained operations on land throughout the full spectrum of military operationsThe Army uses the Force XXI process to ensure it remains the preeminent informationage Army To do this Force XXI incorporates a holistic approach to change This innovativeapproach which we call spiral development compresses the development cycle for newsystems by fielding prototypes and incorporating new technologies on fielded systems withina designated experimental forceThe Army Modernization Plan describes our longterm strategy for modernization givenanticipated force requirements The plan uses modernization goals the six Army patterns ofoperation from AV2010 and the results of experimentation to prioritize modernization investments and acquisitions This prioritization yields a twostage evolution to the Army AfterNext The first stage Army XXI is an essential step to preserve the synchronization of the siximperatives and assure readiness in the midterm Army XXI the product of the Armysnearterm digitization and product improvement efforts will achieve these objectives by fielding systems that enable the Army to achieve and exploit information dominance Army XXIwill begin to come into existence when the 4th Infantry Division Mechanized is equippedwith digital capability in FY00 The AAN will couple information dominance capabilitieswith lighter more agile systems we expect to be possible with future technologiesAmidst the many changes we are making to assure readiness for the 21st century theArmy must preserve its commitment to its core values which are the bedrock of success inbattle and in the service of the Nation We must also continue our commitment to taking careof the quality soldiers and civilians who make up the Total Army

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Strategy For the 21st Century The requirements of military readiness arisefrom the Nations interests and the securitystrategy designed to protect those interests Thecurrent National Security Strategy identifiescertain goals that have remained constantthroughout our Nations history

Protect the lives and safety of Americans Maintain the sovereignty political freedom and independence of the United Stateswith its values institutions and territoryintact and Promote the prosperity and wellbeing ofthe nation and its people

Beginning with the likely trends that will affectfuture national security requirements and thefuture military capabilities necessary to carry outthose requirements this chapter presents theArmy programs for experimenting with newtechnologies and building required capabilitiesThe potential for significant changes in theconduct of military operations is the catalyst forthe Armys efforts to acquire systems that canexploit the latest information technology TheForce XXI process and the Army ModernizationPlan are key elements to the identificationdevelopment and acquisition of informationagesystems

Tomorrows Geostrategic EnvironmentRecent studies of military readiness andnational security requirements offer assessmentsof the shape of the 21stcentury geostrategicenvironment based on current demographiceconomic political and environmental trendsPopulation growth increasing competition for critical resources and possible environmentalcatastrophes all feature in these projections Thepossibility that some societies will collapse dueto their inability to provide basic services isanother feature common to many projectionsThreats posed by terrorism and regionalcompetitors along with the potential emergenceof a peer rival are likely Some forecasts aremore optimistic than others However sincemilitary capabilities are built over long periodsof time and can erode rapidly projections oflikely military requirements must address theless optimistic scenarios The fact that multiplethreats could confront the United Statessimultaneously increases the importance ofpreparing nowGlobal trends indicate a continuing need forthe Army to respond to crises and catastrophesabroad and at home into the next century Tomitigate and whenever possible prevent globalthreats we are also likely to be called on tocontinue our current extensive commitment toshaping operations The requirement to protectthe lives and safety of Americans demands thatwe remain ready to fight and win our Nationswars and to accomplish this mission decisivelywith minimal American casualties

Joint Vision 2010 and Army Vision 2010Joint Vision 2010 a conceptual template forAmericas armed forces predicts that the UnitedStates will face a wider range of threats in thefuture Threats to our national interests rangefrom the possibility of terrorist attacks here inour own country to potential for fullscaleconflict with a rising global or regional peerThe proliferation of weapons of mass destruction

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and the unpredictability ofrapid technological advancesare dangerous variables thatcould affect conflict at anypoint along the spectrum of military operations Sincemid to highintensitycombat operations present uswith the most demandingrequirements and forcesdesigned to meet theserequirements are alsocapable of conductingoperations in a lowerintensity environmentJV2010 concludes that weshould continue to build the capabilities requiredto conduct direct combat operationsJV2010 predicts that joint and wherepossible combined operations will continue tobe the most effective recipe for defeating threatsin the next century The four operationalconcepts of dominant maneuver precisionengagement full dimensional protection andfocused logistics will guide the application ofcombat power in the information age Tosupport these operational concepts and achievenew levels of effectiveness as the landcomponent member of the joint warfightingteam Army Vision 2010 distills six essential Army patterns of operation GainingInformation Dominance Projecting the ForceProtecting the Force Shaping the BattlespaceDecisive Operations and Sustaining the ForceBy identifying concepts technologies andsystems that support these patterns of operationAV2010 provides the starting point for theexperimentation necessary to build a 21stcentury Army The Army envisioned byAV2010 will be capable of projecting powerglobally as part of the joint team and ofconducting prompt and sustained operations onland throughout the full spectrum of military operations

The term Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) refers to the radical enhancement ofwarfighting capability enabled by the applicationof information technology to military systemsBy adding highspeed computers andcommunications to weapons systems and other

Army Experiments and the Revolutions in MilitaryAffairs and Military Logistics

military equipment it is possible to provide allfriendly forces with an almostcontinuouslyupdated picture of where they are where theenemy is and where other friendly units areSituational awareness on this scale increases thelethality of friendly forces by allowing the

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focused application of combat power againstenemy systems and units At the same time thesurvivability of friendly forces increases becauseof the enhanced ability to avoid the enemyscombat power and because of the reduction inaccidental casualties or fratricide amongfriendly units Finally information dominanceallows friendly forces to act far more rapidlythan the enemy can react For these reasons theapplication of the latest information technologyto the military sphere will create a revolutionarychange in the nature of military operationsThe revolutionary potential of informationtechnology extends to military logistics as wellThe Revolution in Military Logistics RMLharnesses technology to provide an almostcontinuously updated picture of the logisticsrequirements of units as well as the location andstatus of supplies equipment personnel andlogistics organizations on the battlefield Withthis level of situational awareness friendlyforces can focus logistics resources where theyare needed and in the process enhance both theeffectiveness and the efficiency of the forceThe potential for revolutionary changedemands that we assess the impact of newtechnologies on the Army and make appropriateadjustments to maintain the best and mosteffective force possible Other nations willpursue the advantages of informationtechnology much of which is commerciallyavailable The Army cannot afford to pursue theacquisition of information technologyhaphazardly because the systems ultimatelymust support information sharing across theentire joint team and among both active andreserve component forces Therefore as thepotential of emerging information technologiesbecame apparent the Army developed anexperimentation process and campaign plan to guide our investigations of new concepts andtechnologies The Force XXI process the ArmyExperimentation Campaign Plan and the ArmyAfter Next Project help the Army efficientlyexplore how best to match technology againstthe practical requirements of soldiers and leadersnow and in the future

Force XXI A Process for SynchronizingFuture Readiness and Change The Army has adopted Force XXI as itsprocess for building the informationage ArmyThe Force XXI process leverages the power ofinformation age technology through a series ofexperiments ranging from the largescale AWEto smallerscale efforts focused on particularfunctional areas By streamlining the way weturn concepts into systems Force XXI providesus with the experimental data needed to maintainthe most capable land combat force in the worldIt evolved from the requirement to managerevolutionary change extending across virtuallyall of the functions of joint warfighting Theprocess allows rapid evaluation of a broad rangeof technologies identification of promisingareas and development of new systems in thoseareas To do this Force XXI incorporates aholistic approach to change that ensures thatinnovations are synchronized with the siximperatives discussed in Chapter 2

The Force XXI process provides insights into htmtrinal and forcestructure adjustments necessary to employ new systems It also helpsidentify leader development and training necessary to preparesoldiers to utilize new systems effectively

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This innovative approach which we callspiral development compresses thedevelopment cycle for new systems by fieldingprototypes and incorporating new technologies onfielded systems within a designated experimentalforce By locating contractors and programmanagers with the experimental force andconducting various military operations in a training environment soldiers and leaders are ableto provide feedback Valid feedback isincorporated directly into system improvementswhich are then used in further operational testsThis foxhole to factory linkage leads to asignificantly faster development cycle andpermits a more rapid fielding of new informationtechnology capabilities to soldiers and unitsThis process not only develops systems morerapidly than the traditional developmental processit also provides important insights that are oftennot evident with more linear developmentprocesses until after the systems are fieldedMany of the operational and human factorsaffecting system characteristics and htmtrine do not appear in isolated tests of the system Only when the system is employed in concert withother Army systems and under demandingconditions do the full implications strengthsand limitations of the system emerge Thespiral development of the Force XXI processfacilitates synchronization of the siximperatives it provides insights into htmtrinaland force structure adjustments necessary toemploy new systems and helps identify leaderdevelopment and training necessary to preparesoldiers to use new systems effectively

The Army ExperimentationCampaign Plan The Army Experimentation Campaign Plan

AECP maps future experiments and exercisesthat support each successive phase of the ForceXXI process Currently the AECP is orientedalong three axes Mechanized ContingencyForce Light Contingency Force and StrikeForce In each of these axes the AECPprovides the framework upon which neworganizational designsand concepts will bedeveloped The AECPwill move the Armyfrom concepts tocapabilities in the newsystems andorganizations that willmake up the ArmyAfter NextThe mechanizedaxis focuses on heavyforces Recent heavyforce experimentsconducted with the 4thInfantry Division Mechanized

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4IDM have led to the redesign of the Armyheavy division Future heavy axis milestonesinclude the Division Capstone Exercise DCXThe DCX concept involves a live brigadelevelNational Training Center rotation at Fort IrwinCA in March 2001 and a computerbased BattleCommand Training Program WarfighterExercise at Fort Hood TX in September 2001These 4ID M training events will demonstrategotowar capabilities with the systems to befielded over the next few yearsThe light axis includes units that can fight response and rapid deployment One objective for this AWE is to improve the effectiveness andefficiency of joint command controlcommunication computers intelligencesurveillance and reconnaissance C4ISRthrough digitization enhanced communicationsand joint interoperability of systems processesand procedures Another objective is to improvejoint operations in urban and restrictive terrainFinally this AWE will serve as a venue forexperimentation with US Atlantic Commandsjoint experimentation processThe Strike Force axiswill lead to the developmentof a highly deployableagile lethal and survivablemiddleweight force StrikeForce will provide a bridgebetween earlyentry lightforces and slowertoarrivemechanized forcescombining the strengths ofboth heavy and light forces in a rapidly deployableconfiguration able toenhance earlyentryoperations as well as operatein urban and restrictive terrain Initially it will be acommand and controlheadquarters that canassimilate light airborne airassault mechanized andmotorized joint and combined forces to create atailored force package for entry operations ThisStrike Force headquarters will participate in theJCF AWEThe AECP provides key experience andanalysis to guide the development and demployment of new systems It allows the Army their way into a theater of operations by seizingports airfields or other areas These units alsooperate well in urban and restrictive terrain andare often called contingency forces because oftheir rapid response capability A JointContingency Force JCF AWE for this axis willoccur in September 2000 focusing on crisis

The Rapid Force Projection Initiative Field Experiment conducted last summeris an example of the Force XXI process in action Here soldiers from the 101stAirborne Division employ new information technology to provide command andcontrol during maneuvers against an opposing force

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to synchronize the six imperatives over time Byemploying the latest technology and dedicatedexperimental forces in controlled warfightingexperiments the three axes of the AECP ensurethat the Army will continue to identify andaddress evolutionary and revolutionary changesin the conduct of land warfare

Battle Labs and CTCsEnabling Change Army Battle Labs and Combat Training Centers CTCs have been critical to the successof the Force XXI process Battle Labs facilitatethe spiral development process through differenttypes of experiments ranging from largescaleAdvanced Warfighting Experiments to smallerAdvanced Technology Demonstrations ATDand Advanced Concept TechnologyDemonstrations ACTD While the largerAWE might involve the integrated efforts ofmultiple Battle Labs ATD and ACTD are mostoften managed by individual labs The recentMilitary Operations in Urban Terrain MOUTACTD provides examples of experimentsconducted by the Battle Laboratories in FY98Three experiments were conducted employinginfantry platoons as the experimental forceEach experiment assessed selected technologiesdesigned to enhance joint Army and MarineCorps warfighting capabilities in urban terrainTests such as these offer an efficient way toidentify promising technologies and improvesystems deemed suitable for furtherdevelopmentAdvanced Warfighting Experiments leveragethe fullyinstrumented training environments ofArmy CTCs to enable comprehensive evaluationof new systems and technologies on a largescale The 4 th Infantry Division MechanizedTask Force XXI AWE at the NTC March 97 and the subsequent Division AWE conducted atFort Hood in conjunction with the BattleCommand Training Program November 97 areexamples of the Force XXI process in actionThe results of these experiments were key to theHeavy Division Redesign

The Army After Next Project The term Army After Next is frequentlyused to refer to the Army of 2025 but it alsorefers to a project begun in 1996 The missionof the AAN Project is to conduct broad studiesof warfare out to the year 2025 to assist seniorleaders in developing a vision of future Armyrequirements The project examines a widerange of areas including the future strategicsetting force projection concepts the use ofAANera forces in urban and complex terrainACRC integration the role of the Army inhomeland defense the nature of future joint andcoalition operations and the identification ofpromising technologies Issues and insightsfrom the AAN Project help focus the Armysscience and technology efforts and combatdevelopment programThe AAN Project institutionalizes a processfor examining the probable nature of future

Soldiers from the 10th Mountain Division participatingin one of three urban terrain experiments conducted bythe Army in FY98

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The Army has sponsored three major AAN wargames to date eachinvolving hundreds of participants in computersupported exercises

warfare Each year the Army sponsors a majorwargame conducts followon seminars andgames to examine specific issues in greaterdepth and produces a report capturing theinsights gained During the FY99 SpringWargame the opposing force will be a majormilitary competitor equipped with asymmetriccapabilities including weapons of massdestruction and advanced informationtechnology systems Subsequent events willexamine the Army imperatives and thetransformation of the current Army into theArmy of 2025The Army has sponsored three major AANwargames to date each involving hundreds ofparticipants in computersupported exercisesRepresentatives from all services and frommultiple agencies outside DoD participate ineach game During the past two years the AANProject has made significant contributionstowards shaping both nearterm transformationefforts and the Army of the future

Joint and CombinedExperimentation As evidenced by the AAN wargames and our inclusion of other services in our AWE theArmy fully supports recent initiatives in jointexperimentation The designation of the Commanderin Chief US Atlantic CommandUSACOM as the DoD Executive Agent forjoint experimentation last May will acceleratethis process Joint experimentation will leverageArmy expertise developed in our highlysuccessful experimentation program and willemploy CONUSbased Army organizations andfacilitiesThrough efforts to shape the development ofjoint operational concepts and integrate ourBattle Labs with USACOM jointexperimentation activities the Army is ensuringthat new systems are compatible with those ofthe other services The Army is also engaged ina number of forums designed to ensure that weachieve multinational force compatibility withour allies and likely coalition partners Cooperative research and development effortswith our NATO allies to field interoperableinformation systems is supplementing our ownmodernization efforts Cooperative efforts withallies can help America gain access to advanced foreign technologies while at the same timeenhancing the interoperability and effectivenessof future coalitions

The Armys Modernization Plan balanceswith risk the demands for current and futurereadiness within fiscal constraints Because ofthe great potential of information technologiesdigitization is a high priority for our neartermefforts Since maintaining interoperability is

The Army Modernization Planvital in fielding digitized systems the Army willfield digital capability by Brigade CombatTeam the critical grouping of combined armselements that wage the maneuver warMaintaining interoperability with the reservecomponents is another important consideration

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in the Armys Modernization Plan The planalso emphasizes recapitalization of our agingequipment because the savings in operationsand sustainment costs generated byrecapitalization are critical to funding thetransition to the Army After NextThe longterm strategy for modernizationwhich the Army Modernization Plan describesuses modernization goals the six Army patternsof operation from AV2010 and the results ofexperimentation to prioritize investments andacquisitions This prioritization yields a twostage evolution to the AAN The first stageArmy XXI is an essential step to ensure theArmy assimilates the revolutionary capabilitiesof information technologies into its trainingforce mix htmtrine equipment and leaderdevelopment while maintaining readinessthrough the midterm Army XXI will achievethese objectives by fielding systems that enablethe Army to achieve information dominanceThe AAN will couple these informationdominance capabilities with lighter more agilesystems we expect to be possible with futuretechnologies This section provides an overviewof Army modernization goals and surveys somemajor systems that contribute to the six AV2010patterns of operation

Army Modernization Goals The Armys modernization strategyestablishes and pursues specific goals essentialto enabling AV2010 patterns of operation Thefive major goals of Army modernization are Digitize the Army Maintain Combat Overmatch Sustain Essential Research and Development and Focus Science and Technologyto LeapAhead Technologies Recapitalize the Force Integrate the AC and RC

The discussion in this section explains howachieving these goals will equip our Army tomaintain fullspectrum dominance in the 21 stcenturyTo achieve the capabilities required byAV2010 the Armys number one modernizationpriority is to achieve information dominance inthe near and midterms Information dominancestems from superior information systems and themindset and training that ensure soldiers areprepared to win on the complex battlefield of thefuture

Digitize the Army The first Army modernization goalDigitizing the Army is the means by which wewill achieve information dominanceDigitization involves the use of moderncommunications capabilities and computers toenable commanders planners and shooters torapidly acquire and share information Thisenhanced ability to share information willimprove our ability to find and target the enemyrapidly and precisely Digitization is not a

This soldier is operating a work station in the LightDigital Tactical Operations Center LDTOC during lastsummers Rapid Force Projection Initiative FieldExperiment The LDTOC packages digital technologiesfor the Armys light infantry divisions

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program in the traditional acquisition senseRather it is a broad effort to integrate commandand control hardware and software theunderlying communications systems andweapons systems to provide informationsharingthroughout the battlespace

The force with the fielded digi tal capabilities is Army XXI theintermediate force between the Army of today and the ArmyAfter Next

Our digitization efforts leverage the latestadvances in information technology from thecommercial sector We will equip theexperimental forcethe 4 th Infantry DivisionMechanized at Fort Hoodwith digitalcapabilities by the end of FY00 and will digitizeIII Corps by the end of FY04 The force with thefielded digital capabilities is Army XXI theintermediate force between the Army of todayand the Army After NextIt is difficult to overstate the importance ofthe initial goal of digitization Since much ofthis technology is available commerciallytimely investment is essential to maintain ourstatus as the worlds preeminent land combatforce in the information age

Maintain Combat Overmatch The Army currently enjoys combatovermatch in most ground combat systems Theaddition of Comanche and Crusader will adddecisive combat power to Army XXI and theArmy After Next Modernization of currentsystems is important to maintain overmatch asthreat capabilities improve Improvements insignature reduction survivability and air defense protection by potential adversaries willrequire corresponding improvements in targetacquisition lethality and range in order to keepour current advantage Preplanned ProductImprovement P3I programs will enhancecombat effectiveness through periodic focusedtechnology insertions and will maintain much ofthe industrial base Making the minimalimprovements necessary to maintain combatovermatch was a function of the Armys decisionto accept risk in modernization in order to fundnearterm readiness requirements The LongbowApache program is an example of how the Armywill use technology upgrades to maintain itscombat overmatch capabilities

Sustain Essential Research andDevelopment and Focus Science andTechnology on LeapAheadTechnologies In recent years the Army deferred the modernization of many systems Deferredmodernization creates a capability gap as currentsystems approach wearout dates withoutreplacement systems ready for fielding In orderto have systems with the required capabilitiesand characteristics in the far term the Armymust field some leapahead capability systems tobridge the gap caused by modernizationdeferrals Focused Research and DevelopmentRD investments addresses this challenge byaccelerating essential leapahead technologiesand ensuring the industrial base is ready to fieldthe systems needed for Army After NextDeveloping technologies to make lighter moremobile more supportable vehicles is an integralpart of the focused RD strategy

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Recapitalize the Force Recapitalization of wornor dated equipment extends itsusability and effectivenessThe Army recapitalizes itsequipment through acombination of replacementand refurbishment programsthat not only extend useful lifebut also reduce operatingcosts Current production andfielding rates of many Armysystems do not meet the levelsrequired to prevent fleet agingfrom becoming a chronicproblem

the Armys modernization in vestments will shift to the procurement of leapahead sys tems

Some examples of systems requiringrecapitalization include the Abrams and Bradleypowerpacks engines other armor systems andaviation Service Life Extension Programs

Integrate the Active and Reserve Components The Army will continue to modernize thereserve components along a timeline that ensuresthat AC and RC forces remain interoperable andcompatible Initiatives to create multicomponent units underscore the importance ofthis modernization goal The reservecomponents are at a historical high point inmodernization due to a combination ofprocurement programs and equipment cascadingfrom AC forces For example M1A1 Abrams tanks have replaced M60A3s in allARNG tank battalions and five transport andsupply companies in the USAR have beenequipped with modernized Heavy EquipmentTransportsThe Armys modernization plan uses thegoals discussed above to allocate resources overtime to transform the Army from its current stateto Army XXI and then Army After NextCurrent modernization investments emphasizefielding equipment with the latest informationtechnologies This will allow the Army to trainits soldiers and leaders to operate effectively aspart of the digitized force Army XXI and givethat force as a whole mental agility As theevolution to the Army After Next continues theArmys modernization investments will shift tothe procurement of additional advanced or leapahead systems that will be lighter and moremobile The force which combines the mentalagility of Army XXI with the physical agilitymade possible by lighter systems is the ArmyAfter Next an Army able to assure readiness forthe 21st century

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As stated previously the Army has derivedsix patterns of operations from the operationalconcepts of JV2010 and likely land powerrequirements of future national securitystrategies The US Army 1998 ModernizationPlan links specific systems to each pattern ofoperation This section highlights some of thesystems and programs that contributesignificantly to the six patterns of operation

Gain Information Dominance Fielding the systems necessary to gainInformation Dominance is essential to realizingthe potential of the Revolution in MilitaryAffairs As mentioned previously digitization isnot a single program but a broad effort affectingmany programsThe digitization effort ranges from upgradingtanks and infantry fighting vehicles toincorporate onboard computers to the fielding ofthe Army Battle Command System ABCSABCS is the central framework for networkingthe battlefield to execute military operationsfaster and more decisively It includes othercritical systems that will form the backbone ofthe networked and digitized force Thesesystems include the Army Tactical Commandand Control System ATCCS Force XXI BattleCommand Brigade and Below FBCB2Maneuver Control System MCS SingleChannel Ground Airborne Radio SystemSystem Improvement Program SINCGARSSIPASIP Enhanced Position LocationReporting System Very High Speed IntegratedCircuitry EPLRSVHSIC and the JointTactical Radio System JTRS Together thesesystems will yield near real time situationalawareness throughout the force Such situational awareness in turn makes it possible to applycombat power much more rapidly andeffectively than our enemies increase thesurvivability of our systems and decreasefratricideEnsuring compatibility with other membersof the joint team is a critical part of attaininginformation dominance The Army EnterpriseArchitecture AEA is the Armys process fordeveloping and maintaining an integratedinformation systems blueprint This blueprint isbeing developed in accordance with the 1996ClingerCohen Act and will ensure Armysystems meet required compatibility standardswithin DoD

Project the Force In addition to the Army Strategic MobilityPlan which ensures the fielding of the Air ForceC17 Globemaster III and the Navys expansionof its RORO sealift capability discussed inChapter 2 another group of programs thatsupport Projecting the Force are those thatprovide Logistics Over The Shore LOTScapability This set of systems includes vesselsto transport cargo from strategic sealift ships tothe beach pier or shore Utility craft such asfloating cranes also contribute to LOTSoperations By ensuring the Army can conductoperations over unimproved shorelines andthrough restricted access ports LOTS equipmentenhances the Armys ability to Project the Force

Protect the Force Theater Air and Missile Defense TAMD isa key requirement for Protecting the ForceFrom initial entry to redeployment Army air andmissile defense systems support the joint TAMD

Fielding Required Capabilities

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architecture In addition to defending againstaircraft the Patriot system provides lower tierprotection against Tactical Ballistic MissilesTBM within a limited area Patriot AdvancedCapability3 PAC3 will more than double thedefended area defeat more capable TBM thathave more than twice the range of the Gulf Warthreat and increase missile accuracy andlethality to effectively destroy TBM and cruisemissiles with WMD warheads The TheaterHigh Altitude Air Defense System THAADcurrently being developed for possibledeployment in 2007 will provide wideareauppertier protection against TBM The Armyalso supports the continued development of asystem capable of providing force protection forforward area critical assets against shortrangeballistic missiles and cruise missiles TheMedium Extended Air Defense SystemMEADS was being developed for this purposeNo other planned or programmed TMD systemof any service can fill this roleProtection of maneuver forces againstattacking aircraft has been greatly enhanced withthe fielding of the Bradley Linebacker theSentinel radar and the Forward Area AirDefense Command and Control System (FAADC2). The future fielding of Avengerswith SlewtoCue capability will further improveair defense capability These improvements provide greater lethality against existing andemerging air threats and will increase thesurvivability of our combat forces on futurebattlefields

Shape the Battlespace Shaping the battlespace refers to thesynchronized use of various Army assets andweapons systems such as longrange missilefires jamming and deception in conjunctionwith maneuver to overwhelm an enemy Thedestruction of enemy reinforcements with longrange fires before they can influence the fight isan example The capability to detect enemyforces at great distances and transmit thisinformation to friendly forces often referred toas sensortoshooter linkages are key to shapingthe battlespace The Joint Surveillance TargetAttack Radar System JSTARS Ground StationModuleCommon Ground Station receivesprocesses manipulates and disseminates datafrom the airborne JSTARS radar unmannedaerial vehicles and other tactical theater andnational systems The Army Tactical MissileSystem ATACMS Block IIA programcombines an extendedrange missile 300 kmwith the Brilliant AntiTank munition to engagemoving armor formations effectively at greatdistances The capability to detect and disruptenemy formations at long range provided bythese systems is an important element of landcombat power

Decisive Operations Decisive Operations compel the enemy to dowhat friendly forces want them to do egretreat surrender etc In combat operations Patriot Advanced Capability3 will dramatically improve lowertier protection against Tactical Ballistic Missiles

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we achieve this result by winning battles Withthe exception of the M109A6 Paladin howitzerwe currently have better systems than ourpotential adversaries However other nationsare developing weapons that equal and insome cases surpass the weapons we currentlyfield Further the dramatic increases in systemcapabilities made possible by emerginginformation technologies could accelerate thefielding of more capable systems by othernations This makes improving our currentsystems critical to maintaining our currentcombat overmatchSeveral other nations including Russia andChina currently field howitzers with betterranges and rates of fire than the Paladin TheCrusader is the Armys highest priority groundcombat modernization program This howitzerwill give the Army a better system for providingclose artillery fire than that of potential enemiesThe Crusader features advanced technologyincluding the worlds first fullyautomated reloadsystem which makes Crusaders rate of fire morethan three times that of the Paladin Otherincorporated technology advances ensure that theCrusader will remain the worlds best closeartillery system well into the 21st century and theAAN While heavier than the current howitzerthe threefold increase in rate of fire that Crusaderprovides translates into a dramatic reduction inthe strategic lift required to provide fire supportfor deployed forces because fewer Crusaders canprovide better fire support than a larger numberof the current howitzersThe reconnaissance security and attackfunctions of Army aviation are keys to ourcapability to conduct decisive operations TheLongbow Apache fuses new technology withproven performance to ensure our forces retainthe best attack helicopter into the next century

The RAH66 Comanche addresses the currentdeficiencies in reconnaissance and securityhelicopters Kiowa Cobra by providing a daynight and adverse weather armedreconnaissance capability Comanche is fullydigitized highly deployable and is designed tooperate in the joint environmentThe Abrams Upgrade and SystemsEnhancement Programs are other key pieces ofthe Armys modernization strategy The upgradeconsists of converting M1 tanks to an M1A2configuration through a number ofimprovements which include a digital electronicspackage better armor and better night visionThe M1A2 System Enhancement Programfurther improves the M1A2s digital nightvision and onboard navigation systemBecause they enable each tank to send andreceive reports via digital command and controlsystems these upgrades are an important aspectof digitizing the battlefield Since the Armycannot afford to upgrade all its tanks to theM1A2 standard and continue to pursue otherimportant modernization objectives some M1swill be converted to M1A1D models Byadding an applique computer this upgrade givesthe M1A1D digital capability

The RAH66 Comanche provides all weather day and nightarmed reconnaissance capability

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Sustain the Force Sustainment enables all other patterns ofoperation The improved situational awarenessafforded by digitization is essential to achieveboth the Revolution in Military Logistics and thecapability for focused logistics envisioned byJV2010 The Global Combat Support SystemArmy GCSSA will be the automated systemthat will provide global visibility of assets andrequirements GCSSA will interface with theCombat Service Support Control SystemCSSCS which is the component of the ArmyTactical Command and Control System that willprovide instant visibility of tactical logisticsrequirements and assets CSSCS featuresautomatic connectivity to consumption sensorsthat eliminate the need for manual input fromlogistical medical financial and personnel systems These systems together with otherimprovements in equipment communicationsand organizational design will help streamlinesustainment and contribute to reduced demandGCSSA and CSSCS are key contributors to amore responsive logistics systemTactical Wheeled Vehicle TWVmodernization is another key to providing thelogistics capabilities required for the 21stcentury Approximately 25 percent of the TWVfleet has exceeded its life expectancy Congressprovided additional funds in FY99 which hashelped with the procurement of new vehiclesTo support the requirement of sustaining theforce and avoid the inefficiencies of maintainingan aging fleet the Army must continue fundingof TWV modernization including recapitalization

The Total Army has decreased in size by 37percent since the end of the Cold War Theendstrengths recommended by the QDR480000 AC and 530000 RC make the Armyas small as it can get while continuing to meetthe demands of the National Military Strategywith acceptable risk Further reducing the sizeof the Total Army is likely to increase the timeit takes to win future wars with an attendant risein casualtiesThe Army has undertaken a number ofinitiatives in the force structure arena We arecontinuing the Total Army Analysis process forevaluating our force structure Based on recentexperimentation we have created a new designfor heavy divisions that exploits the potential ofdigitization Future light force experimentationand ongoing initiatives to achieve seamless

Future Force Structureintegration of AC and RC forces will alsoinfluence force structure in the near termTogether Total Army Analysis 2007 TAA07the Heavy Division Redesign the ARNGDivision Redesign and the series of Total Armyintegration initiatives reflect the Armys effortsto shape the force to best meet the requirementsof the NMS

Total Army Analysis 2007 The Total Army Analysis process providesperiodic assessments of Army force structureTAA07 will capture the full range of Armyrequirements going well beyond the possibilityof having to fight two nearly simultaneousmajor theater wars MTW TAA07 will be thefirst study to evaluate the force requirements forboth the institutional and operational forces of

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Army XXI It will consider the full range ofemerging requirements such as HomelandDefense and Domestic Operations Support andwill integrate Force XXI organizational designsAs part of the ongoing TAA process TAA07will ensure that our Army is employing its totalstrength in the most effective manner possible

Division XXI Redesigning theHeavy Division The redesigned heavy division has fewer people in both its armor and mechanized infantryvariants than the current Army of ExcellenceAOE division due to the greater synergy andefficiency made possible by digitizing the forceThe enhanced situational awareness madepossible by digitization allows maneuver forcesto move to points of positional advantage withgreater speed and precision avoid enemystrengths and combine effects of direct andindirect fires more quickly and effectively thannondigitized forces Consequently the numberof main battle systems tanks and infantryfighting vehicles decreases from 58 to 44 ineach line battalion in the Division XXI forcestructure The increased efficiency gained fromdigitization in the logistics arena allows for areduction in the number of soldiers performingthe divisions combat service support functionsIn sum the Division XXI armor and mechanizedinfantry divisions are about 12 percent smallerthan their AOE predecessors with total requiredstrengths of 15593 and 15812 respectivelyThe Division XXI design features a numberof innovations Each variant has 513 ReserveComponent authorizations including one ARNGMLRS battery and one ARNG general supportaviation company Embedding RC soldiers andunits in the Division XXI force structurerecognizes the essential role they play in Army operations today and will facilitate sustainingtheir readiness and rapid deployability in the nextcentury Among its other features the newdesign adds a 49man reconnaissance troop toeach maneuver brigade and increasesmechanized infantry strength by including threesquads of nine men each in infantry platoonsBased on the anticipated increase in directsupport artillery capability provided by theCrusader the Division XXI design reduces thenumber of howitzers in the field artillerybattalions of the new division from 24 to 18Overall the new design significantly reduces thenumber of people in our heavy divisions as aresult of the increased lethality survivability andefficiency we expect from digitization

ARNG Division Redesign Study Total Army Analysis 2005 identified a72000soldier shortfall between required andavailable combat support CS and combatservice support CSS force structure Two yearsago the ARNG Division Redesign Studyrecommended the conversion of approximately48000 personnel authorizations currently inARNG combat force structure to provide someof this required CS and CSS structure TheARNG will convert six combat brigades 19000soldiers between FY00 and FY05 with the restof the conversion taking place by the end ofFY09

Overall the new design signifi cantly reduces the number of peoplein our heavy divisions as a result of the increased lethality survivability and efficiency we expect from digitization

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Total Army Integration The pace of operations demanded by theNMS resource constraints and the historicaltradition of the citizensoldier in America makethe further integration of the AC and RC anessential priority for Americas Army TheArmys integration initiatives employ acombination of enhanced senior leadercoordination mechanisms leader and componentexchange programs and multicomponentcomposite units to build the shared experienceand trust essential for a seamless Total ArmyTotal Army integration initiatives demonstrateour commitment to ensuring the efficiency andrelevance of Total Army force structureTo facilitate the tough force structuredecisions necessary to achieve peak efficiencythe Army has moved aggressively to improvecommunications among the senior leadership ofthe components The Assistant Secretary forManpower and Reserve Affairs has emphasizedthe role of the Army Reserve Forces PolicyCommittee a committee composed of generalofficers of all three components The Vice Chiefof Staff reenergized another key avenue forintercomponent communication the ReserveComponent Coordination Council in order tobetter address difficult policy and resourcingissues Although resource constraints requiresacrifices by all retaining the bedrockcommitment to pursue the policies that bestserve the nation will enable our senior Armyleaders to speak with one voice and achieve thegoals of integrationThe Army is expanding an initiative to embedboth active and reserve elements in one unitPrograms ranging from simple leadershipexchanges to the establishment of multicomponent units at all levels seek to increasecrosscomponent understanding through shared experiences The Army is currently placing AC officers in key RC command and staff billetsThis year this program will be expanded toinclude assigning RC officers to command ACunits The creation of two integrated divisionseach comprised of ARNG enhanced SeparateBrigades eSB under a headquarterscommanded by an AC major general is anotherACRC integration highlight for this year Thedivision headquarters will be responsible fortraining readiness and mobilization of the eSBWe are also experimenting with using RCcompanies to replace one of the companies inour AC light infantry battalions Theseinitiatives and others like them will create thekind of flexible organizations able to respond toemerging threats in both the international anddomestic arenasYet another initiative divisional teamingestablishes a habitual relationship between anactive component division and a reservecomponent division The RC division wouldlead responses to certain kinds of contingenciessuch as disaster relief and response to domesticemergencies with the AC division providingpersonnel and equipment to augment the reserveunit In the case of a contingency involvingdeployment abroad the AC division wouldassume primary responsibility while acceptingaugmentation from the associated RC divisionDivisional teaming is in place today betweenthe 4th Infantry Division Mechanized and the40th Infantry Division Mechanized of theARNG Likewise the 1st Cavalry Division isteamed with the 49th Armored Division Nextyear the 1st Cavalry Division will be able to useits current experience in Bosnia to help preparethe 49th Armored Division to assumeresponsibility for Operation Joint Forge the USportion of the Bosnia mission. Both the increased communication at senior

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levels and the various proposals for blendingcomponents at all levels have the potential toenhance the future readiness of the Total ArmyAny significant Army operation today must draw on the reserve components The expanded roleof the Total Army in the execution of the NMSmakes rapport and cooperation among allcomponents essential for national security

The senior officer and NCO leaders of theAAN are platoon leaders and privates today Inaddition to the fundamental mental and physicaltoughness that will always be required ofwarriors the leaders of the AAN will requirebroad proficiency in a wide range of complexskills to win informationage battles We arepreparing these leaders today just as we preparesoldiers every day all over the worldthroughdemanding training in our units and institutionalschools The Revolution in Military Affairsoffers dramatic new opportunities on thebattlefield but it also offers new opportunities toleverage information technology for trainingsoldiers and leaders more efficiently andeffectively than we do today The Total ArmySchool System TASS and improvements inTraining Aids Devices Simulators andSimulations will contribute significantly to thepreparation of tomorrows soldiers and leaders

The Army Leader Campaign Plan The Army Leader Campaign Plan ALCP isdesigned to integrate current leader developmentefforts to produce leaders with the right valuesattributes and skills to be successful in directorganizational and strategic leadership rolesThe htmtrinal basis for these efforts FieldManual 22100 Army Leadership has just beenrewritten to establish a common frameworkincorporating the redefined Army values acharacter development model and an ethicalclimate assessment instrument The addition of

Training Soldiers and Leadersthe Army values to new officer NCO andcivilian evaluation reports is one initiative underthe ALCP Another is the increased emphasis onleadership assessments in an operational settingsuch as at Combat Training Centers

The Total Army School System The Army is using information technology toimprove how it teaches the many diversefunctional skills our soldiers need to acquire Allsoldiers and leaders must complete periodic skill

training to attain proficiency in the newresponsibilities associated with higher ranksThe Total Army School System TASSprovides the requisite training through a networkof schools spread over seven geographicalregions and a distance education program basedlargely on correspondence courses Informationtechnology is helping streamline the TASS byensuring soldiers have easier access tostandardized Total Army Training System

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Courseware TATSC TATSC is making iteasier for all soldiers to get the right training atthe right time regardless of where they areThe Total Army Distance Learning ProgramTADLP is one of the initiatives for makingrequired instruction more accessible to soldiersThis program offers a significant means fordelivery of standardized individual collectiveand selfdevelopment training to soldiers andunits at the right place and time through theapplication of multiple means and technologiesTADLP consists of a variety of different types ofinstruction including video tapes and interactivemultimedia instruction The program is beingsignificantly improved through the use of videoteletraining VTT and webbased instructionOver 140 classrooms with VTT and CDROMcapability will be fielded by the end of FY99 toboth active and reserve component sitesThe mission of the Total Army SchoolSystem is challenging Through the TADLP andTATSC the Army is changing the educationparadigm for our soldiers and leaders to meet thischallenge Eventually these programs willreplace the current system of periodic instructionwith one in which soldiers and leaders participatecontinuously in professional educationthroughout their careers

Training Aids DevicesSimulators and Simulations As part of our ongoing efforts to increase the

efficiency of the Army we are incorporating awide variety of TADSS to achieve the mostrealistic training possible at the lowest costTADSS refers to a wide range of equipment andsoftware from the simple laser that replicates thefiring of a rifle or machine gun to the complexcomputer programs that drive computerdrivencommand post exercises to help train staff officers and NCOs at battalion and higher levelsTADSS is a valuable supplement to the live fieldtraining that is the foundation of readinessComputer simulations of combat operationsare useful staff training tools The BattleCommand Training Program BCTP forexample provides an experience analogous tothe combat maneuver training centers for corpsdivision and RC brigade staffs The BCTPsubjects staffs to fastpaced simulated combatoperations and generates the associatedinformation flow to test the staffs ability to tracksubordinate units and plan future operationsaround the clock for several days The virtualenemy is maneuvered by a professional cadrewellversed in current US htmtrine makingevery BCTP event a challenging trainingexerciseWeapons system simulators replicate thefunctioning of advanced weapon systems suchas the Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle or anattack helicopter The efficiencies possiblethrough the appropriate use of these TADSS areobvious Helicopter simulators for instanceenable air crews to achieve training proficiencyon certain tasks and thus reduce the actualhelicopter flying hours required for trainingIn many cases TADSS afford the Army away to attain levels of readiness that wouldotherwise be impossible to achieve within safetyenvironmental and resourcing constraintsFuture TADSS will incorporate the SyntheticEnvironment SE Core in which a group ofrelated systems simulators eg Close CombatTactical Trainer Aviation Combined ArmsTactical Trainer Fire Support Combined ArmsTactical Trainer II etc will be integrated toconduct high fidelity combined arms operations. The SE Core concept will allow commanders tosimultaneously train all battlefield operating

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A soldier from the 1st Support Battalion Multinational Force andObservers competes on an obstacle course in the Sinai

systems in real time and on the terrain of choiceacross the full spectrum of military operationsThe synthetic environment will link live virtualand constructive domains These TADSS will substantially supplement but cannot replace thenecessary field training that allows soldiers totrain to proficiency on actual equipment whileexposed to the full effects of weather and terrain

The changes embodied in the Armysmodernization force structure and traininginitiatives are truly revolutionary As weimplement these initiatives it is important tobalance our desire to make the changes necessaryto maintain readiness with the need to preservethe fundamental qualities that have been andremain the bedrock for success in battle Wemust continue to ensure that our soldiers embracethe essential values that have been the soul ofour Army since its birthThe values of loyalty duty respect selflessservice honor integrity and personal courageare deeply rooted in our American characterThese values have been the hallmark of theAmerican soldier for over 223 years While thesevalues are not new competing values in oursociety can obscure and dilute them Thissection provides an overview of the initiativesdesigned to ensure that our values remain thecentral feature of our Army

The Human Relations Action PlanOur Human Relations Action Planpublished in September 1997responded to incidents that revealedequal opportunity and sexualharassment problems in our ranksThe Army has implemented a series ofinitiatives outlined in the plan to fixthese problems an emphasis onteaching Army values and traditions in

Preserving Army ValuesInitial Entry Training and in the Army at largethe assignment of additional personnel toimprove supervision of Initial Entry Trainingand the implementation of Armywide CharacterDevelopment XXI initiatives Additionally theArmy is increasing the number of EqualOpportunity Advisors from 350 to 500 Thisyear a reassessment of the human relationsenvironment throughout the Army willdetermine the effectiveness of the measuresimplemented under the Human Relations ActionPlan

Character Development XXI Character Development XXI implementsinitiatives in htmtrine and policy training andeducation and communication to strengthen thevalues focus of our Army Policy initiativesinclude the revision of the Army leadershipmanual and evaluation instruments for officers

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NCOs and Army civilians discussed previouslyIn the training arena the Army has lengthenedInitial Entry Training by one week to permitincreased training on Army values anddisseminated an Ethical Climate AssessmentSurvey for use by Army leadersCommunications initiatives emphasized theArmys values through measures like theproduction of the video Living Army Valuesand the distribution of soldier cards and valuestags to all soldiers

The Consideration of OthersProgram The Consideration of Others Program

consists of regular smallgroup discussionsoriented on values Soldiers lives are full ofopportunities to meet the high standard of Army

Soldiers lives are full of opportunities to meet the highstandard of Army values

values from the way they treat other soldiers intheir units to the performance of routineinspections during guard duty TheConsideration of Others Program fosters betterunderstanding of Army values by allowingsoldiers and leaders to focus on the concreteaspects of their organizational and trainingenvironment that directly illustrate Army valuesin action The program is based on thesuccessful approach used at the United StatesMilitary Academy and it has been implementedArmywide as a recurring mandatory requirement

The Army is implementing a comprehensive modernization plan based on the anticipatedrequirements of future strategy and extensive experimentation with emerging technologies Theexecution of this plan will provide the Army with the capability to conduct prompt and sustainedoperations on land throughout the full spectrum of military operations in the 21st century The newequipment and initiatives that will realize the Revolution in Military Affairs do not change the factthat quality soldiers are the single most important factor in achieving both current and futurereadiness The Armys focus on traditional valuesthe source of our organizational excellenceis acritical aspect of attracting developing and retaining quality soldiers and leaders

Officers and men must know their equipment They must train with the equipment theyintend to use in battle Equipment must be in the best operational condition when taken to theTheater of OperationsGeneral George S Patton Jr


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Chapter 4

The Army CommunityGetting the Balance Right

Americas Army is a community united by its special purpose to defend the Constitution ofthe United States We are a community rooted in service with installations and organizationsin every state and around the world These Army communities are good stewards of ourNations sons and daughters committed to providing a good quality of life and a familyfriendly environment They are also good stewards of the Nations financial natural andcultural resources pursuing every reasonable efficiency and striving to comply with Federaland state regulations The Total Army serves the Nation not only through our readiness butin the way that readiness is achievedwhile taking care of its people and the other resourcesentrusted to its careArmy installations and organizations take care of soldiers Army civilians and familymembers through a collection of programs and activities that range from providing medicalcare to Morale Welfare and Recreation activities These activities aim to preserve the quality of life within the Army communityWhether striving to remain ready through rigorous training or applying the skills gleanedfrom training to the execution of the NMS the Army is committed to be an efficient organization Army efficiencies and Army support for the wideranging DoD Defense Reform Initiatives are making a difference The Army is programmed to achieve about 10 billion insavings over the Future Years Defense Plan By streamlining privatizing and seeking costreductions across a full range of activities and processes the Army is harnessing the Revolution in Business Activities to improve both effectiveness and efficiency

A Community With a Mission Americas Army is a community with amission to fight and win Americas wars Forthe Army this mission requires constantreadiness to conduct prompt and sustainedoperations throughout the entire spectrum ofmilitary operations Military service placesunique demands on military members theirfamilies and the civilians who work with themThese shared sacrifices forge common interestsand form the foundation of the military community. The physical manifestations of the Armycommunity today are our installations and organizations just as they were when frontier outposts guarded key routes and points of access tothe nation Many soldiers and their families livein military communities located and designed tosupport the Armys mission Our military communities are also important for the readinessenhancing functions they perform Installations

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manage the land the Army uses for training aswell as many other resources that contribute toreadiness They oversee many programs thatcontribute to the quality of life of soldiers andtheir family members The sections that follow describe important Armywide programs andprocedures for managing installations and organizations These programs incorporate safety intoArmy operations maintain quality of life sustain the environment and improve efficiency

Army installations range in size from thesmall outposts that support peace operations inBosnia and other places around the world tomajor bases that combine large maneuvertraining areas with communities the size of smalltowns Installation staffs perform over 100functions that parallel those of a city businessor commercial enterprise They operate inaccordance with Army regulations and standardsEfforts to increase efficiency and readinessArmywide have led to the development of acomprehensive annual report to monitor thestatus of key installation functions and facilitiesa vision to guide the evolution of Armyinstallations into the next century and acomprehensive effort to manage the increasinglycomplex network of installation computers andinformation systems

The Installation Status Report The Installation Status Report ISR adecision support system designed to assist theArmys senior leaders in the management of ourinstallations provides an assessment of the statusof facilities environmental compliance andservices both on individual installations andArmywide The ISR provides assessments ofinstallation readiness to perform missions suchas supporting deployments and conductingmobilization training In addition to helpinginstallations and organizations comply withFederal and state regulations it is a useful tool

Managing Army Installations and Organizationsfor informing resource allocation decisions

Installation Vision 2010 Installation Vision 2010 IV 2010 is theconceptual template for installations thatsupports Army Vision 2010 It is based on fivetenets Maintaining Readiness ProvidingPower Projection Maintaining Quality of LifeSustaining the Environment and OperatingEfficiently For each tenet IV 2010 assignsspecific goals and strategies to achieve thosegoals By providing guidance and standardizedstrategies for achieving common goals IV2010will promote installation managementefficiencies Armywide

Installation staffs perform over 100 functions that parallel those of a city business or commercial enterprise

The Installation InformationInfrastructure Architecture The Installation Information Infrastructure

Architecture I3A a component of theoverarching Army Enterprise Architectureeffort discussed in the last chapter ensuresArmy systems relying on informationtechnology meet Army and DoD capability andcompatibility requirements The I3A provides

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a tool for managing installation informationtechnology resources down to individual buildinglevel By showing the existing and plannedinformation technology infrastructure the I3Ahelps the installation Director of Information Management decide where and how to best useavailable resources A related securityarchitecture helps the Army protect itsinformation systems

The Army operates the largest mostcomprehensive safety program in the worldProtecting its people and preventing theaccidental loss of resources is a top priority forthe Armys leadership The Army hasexperienced dramatic improvements in its safetyrecord over the past few yearsArmy safety activities are organized toprotect the force and enhance warfightingeffectiveness through a systematic andprogressive process of hazard identification andrisk mitigation that is embedded in Armyhtmtrine Commanders use this riskmanagement process to identify safety problemsbefore they can degrade readiness or missionaccomplishment When they identify safetyproblems commanders take action to addressthem The Army integrates risk managementinto all its daytoday processes from thesustaining base to combat training centers andfrom testing and depot activities to all types ofcontingency operationsBesides protecting the force duringoperations emphasis on safety at installationlevel insures that Army communities are safe places to live and work Safety offices on Armyinstallations are directly linked to the commandInstallation safety managers are direct advisorsto installation commanders Each installationsafety manager is responsible for the designdevelopment and execution of an installationsafety program tailored to the unique missionfunctions of the installation Safety offices on Army installations monitor safety trendsidentified by the Department of the Army andmajor command MACOM safety offices

Quality of life for our soldiers and theirfamilies is a top priority for the Army leadershipbecause it plays a key role in Army readinessBesides influencing recruitment and retention

installation programs and services help soldiersand their families cope with increasedPERSTEMPO frequent relocations anddeployments and long separations

SafetyQuality of LifeA NCARNG soldier mans a portable fire suppressionsystem during training on forward arming and refuelingtechniques for his units attack helicopters at Fort HoodTX

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To track the attitudes of soldiers and theirfamilies towards quality of life and otherimportant issues the Army uses the SampleSurvey of Military Personnel SSMP The USArmy Research Institute for the Behavioral andSocial Sciences conducts the SSMP semiannually in the spring and fall SSMP resultscontribute to the development of strategies formaintaining quality of life These results indicatethat the programs and facilities discussed in thefollowing paragraphsArmy family and singlesoldier housing healthcare commissary andexchange privileges family programs andmorale welfare and recreation MWRprogramsare all important contributors toquality of life for soldiers and their families

Army Family Housing The Armys leadership is committed toproviding high quality Army Family HousingAFH The cost of achieving this goal exceedsthe funding level available Our strategy forattaining the goal of quality housing whileavoiding the high cost of revitalizing andsustaining AFH is to privatize and transition toa business basis all AFH operations andmanagement to the maximum extent possibleThe 1996 Military Housing PrivatizationInitiative also known as the ResidentialCommunities Initiative RCI authorizes the useof appropriated funds and Army property toattract privatesector capital and expertise foroperating managing repairing improving andconstructing military housing in the UnitedStates The principal objective of the RCI partof the DoD Defense Reform Initiatives discussedlater in this chapter is to eliminate inadequatemilitary housing by the year 2010 Although RCIhas not been authorized overseas the Armyintends to privatize all Army Family Housing inthe United States by 2005 The first Army RCI project at Fort Carson Colorado involveshaving a business lease land and housing fromthe Army and use them to meet Army FamilyHousing requirements The organization willrevitalize the inventory and build 840 new unitswithin five years In addition it will own operateand maintain the inventory for 50 years Familieswill pay rent but the rent will not exceedallowances In addition to the Fort Carsonproject additional RCI projects at 42installations including about 85000 units areeither being planned or are under developmentWhen complete the Army community will haveimproved quality of life and divested a majorresource burdenWhile the RCI initiative is gainingmomentum the WholeNeighborhoodRevitalization Program WNRP is an ongoingprogram for systematically improving existingAFH The goals of this program are to improvehousing to current standards reduce recurringmaintenance and repair costs and reduce energyand utility costs There are 12 funded WNRPprojects 10 in the United States and 2 in Europefor FY99 FY99 is the last year the Army willfund the WNRP in the United States beginningnext year the program will be funded exclusivelyoverseas where it will remain the Armys toolfor managing AFH until RCI authority isextended to overseas areas

Single Soldier Housing Quality barracks for our single soldiersprovide a safe clean living environment andsupport both recruiting and retention effortsModernizing permanentparty single soldierhousing to what we call a 11 standard is ourhighest priority for facilities The 11 standardprovides each soldier with a private livingsleeping area as well as a service area withrefrigerator and microwave and a bathroomshared with one other soldier The Army aims

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to achieve this standard in the United States by2008 With some funding assistance from hostnations we should also achieve the 11 standardin Europe by 2010 and in Korea by 2012The Army has undertaken a reexamination ofbarracks design for soldiers undergoing initialentry training IET The Trainee Barracks DesignSubcommittee will work from the existingstandard design developed in 1986 As part ofthe process of defining future facilityrequirements this Subcommittee will challengeall assumptions about how soldiers in IET live andtrain

Medical Care The Army completed implementation of theTRICARE program in the last of elevenTRICARE regions in June 1998 The TRICAREprogram offers CHAMPUSeligible beneficiariesthree options for obtaining health care TRICAREPrime Standard or Extra Automatically enrolledin TRICARE Prime active duty personnelcontinue to have their health care needs managedin military medical treatment facilities and paynothing out of pocket for referrals to civilianproviders Depending on the rank of theirsponsor the enrolled families of active dutysoldiers pay 6 or 12 for each outpatientvisit to nonmilitary medical care facilitiesTRICARE Standard and Extra benefits arethe same as under the CHAMPUS programwith the exception that TRICARE Extraoffers discounts for beneficiaries who useproviders from a preferred providernetwork NonMedicareeligible retireesunder age 65 pay an annual enrollment feeof 460 per family or 230 for the retireealone in addition to the copaymentsAlthough Medicare eligible retirees are currently ineligible for TRICARE coverage the Army began a demonstration program inSeptember 1998 to test using the militaryprogram to provide care for these retirees The1997 Balanced Budget Act authorized theHealth Care Financing Administration toreimburse DoD medical facilities for careprovided to the retirees who participate in thisdemonstration DoD expects to implementMedicare subvention systemwide uponsuccessful completion of the demonstrationThe level of enrollment in TRICAREindicates the high value military members placeon the benefit of highquality medical care forthemselves and their families This benefitreassures deployed soldiers that their familieswill receive adequate care The Armyaggressively supports the TRICARE managedcare program and managed care support MCScontracts and continues to work with the Officeof the Assistant Secretary of Defense HealthAffairs to tailor TRICARE to better suit servicereadiness and patient needsFamilies of active duty soldiers receive dental coverage through the Family Member Dental Plan that covers a significant portion of dental procedures Soldiers pay monthly premi

The level of enrollment in TRICARE indicates the high valuemilitary members place on the benefit of highquality medicalcare for themselves and their families

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ums of 809 for one additional family memberand 2000 for more than one additional familymember to be covered under this plan Startingin February 1998 retirees and their family members began enrolling in the newly establishedDepartment of Defense Retiree Dental Plan thatcharges premiums according to a retirees geographical region and number of people covered

The presence of commissaries and exchanges reduces theuncertainty of frequent reloca tions particularly for soldiersand family members moving overseas for the first time

Commissaries and Exchanges Commissaries and exchanges continue to bea benefit our soldiers retirees and their familiesvalue highly Results from a recent SSMPSpring 1998 indicated that commissary andexchange privileges are the two factors out of56 with the highest levels of satisfaction over70 percent for enlisted soldiers Commissaryprivileges also were the single factor with thehighest level of satisfaction among officers 82percentCommissaries and exchanges are an importantcontributor to military quality of life Thesefacilities offer an economical alternative toshopping in commercial grocery and departmentstores Additionally revenues generated byexchange profits contribute to installation moralewelfare and recreation programs The presenceof commissaries and exchanges reduces theuncertainty of frequent relocations particularlyfor soldiers and family members moving overseas for the first time For those stationedoverseas commissaries and exchanges oftenoffer the only practical access to Americanproducts

Morale Welfare and RecreationPrograms Army MWR programs improve soldier

readiness by promoting mental and physicalfitness increasing family wellness andenhancing soldier and Army civilian quality oflife The programs offer a variety of recreationalactivities sports and fitness facilities librariesindoor recreation centers outdoor recreationcenters arts and crafts facilities automotive skillsfacilities and entertainment and leisure travelprograms Among enlisted soldiers surveyed inthe SSMP the quality and availability of Armyrecreation services received the third and fourthhighest levels of satisfaction The availabilityof recreation services was also important to theofficers surveyedrating third overall on theSSMPCivilian MWR professionals support majordeployments by providing a range of MWRservices for deployed soldiers and Armycivilians For instance 139 civilian professionalshave voluntarily served in the Operation JointEndeavorGuardForge Area of ResponsibilityAOR promoting physical fitness and providingrecreation social and other support services Atthe end of FY98 21 MWR specialists wereoperating 30 MWR service points in the BosniaAOR supporting soldiers with DoD and UnitedServices Organization USO entertainmentprograms recreation programs and specialevents

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Army Family Programs Army Family Programs help soldiers and theirfamilies balance the demands of military lifeprovide a forum for addressing quality of lifeissues and assist families in handling the stressof deployments These programs are animportant asset for our Army because 62 percentof our soldiers are married and another fourpercent are single parents By increasing ourfamilies self reliance and improving access tothe support available from within ourcommunities Army Family Programs are aforce multiplier that enhance readinessArmy Child and Youth programs supportArmy families by making high quality affordableservices accessible to soldiers The Armymatches child care fees paid by parents withappropriated fund support Family Child Carehomes help meet specialized care requirementsComputer labs homework centers and summercamps are available for schoolage childrenMiddle school and teen open recreation programsgo beyond traditional sports and recreation byproviding supervision that helps theseimpressionable youngsters learn appropriate andhealthy behavior All of these programs helpbalance the demands of the Army with the needsof Army familiesThe Army harnesses the volunteer spirit ofits members through Family Support GroupsFSGs These groups provide a strong internalsupport network for Army families FSGs arevoluntary organizations centered around thesoldiers assigned unit Scheduled meetingstelephone rosters and newsletters fostercommunication and friendship within the unitfamily Many FSGs schedule regular activitiesdesigned to provide social and emotional supportWhen a unit deploys the FSG becomes amechanism to focus community support for the

families of deployed soldiers Family AssistanceCenters FAC operated by Army units andinstallations during major deployments workclosely with FSGs to provide assistanceinformation and referral to soldiers and familymembers FACs have direct access to theresources available in key community agencieslike the Red Cross Army Community Serviceand the Judge Advocate General

Family Support Groups provide support for deployedsoldiers and their families

The Army Family Teambuilding ProgramAFTB enhances personal and familypreparedness for three audiences soldierscivilians serving in positions that might requiredeployment and families Each track providestraining on Army community resources AFTBpromotes selfreliance in those new to the Armyand also prepares leaders in the FSGs and unitsto assist others with problems In the familymember track of AFTB the training begins withan orientation to the military for new membersand it provides a vehicle for welcoming newpeople into the community as well as teachingthe nuts and bolts of Army life and Armycommunity resourcesThe Army Family Action Plan AFAP is oneof the Armys most effective tools to manage

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change and help maintain high quality of lifestandards for soldiers family members andcivilian employees By providing a forum forinstallation and Army qualityoflife issues theAFAP gives commanders and leaders an accurateassessment of how the people in theirorganizations view Army quality of life TheAFAP process begins with local conferenceswhere representatives of the installationsorganizations identify issues of concern andrecommend solutions Most issues are resolvedat local level but some are forwarded for actionat higher levels To date issues raised throughthis forum have led to 54 pieces of state andnational legislation that benefit all militaryfamilies The program has also contributed toArmy quality of life by generating importantpolicy revisions programs and servicesArmy Family Programs are an importantresource for making the Army more than just thesum of its parts By easing access to essential

services and harnessing the spirit of volunteerismthese programs foster a spirit of sharing andcaring that help make the Army a familyfriendly community

Retired Soldiers The Army community includes over 900000retirees and surviving spouses These valuablemembers of our community provide a tangiblereminder of the dedicated service of countlesssoldiers throughout our Nations history Manyretirees are active members of unit associationsthat foster esprit among todays soldiers throughceremonies commemorating past unitachievements They also sponsor volunteerprojects in local communities and supportrecruiting efforts For todays soldiers retireesare a compelling example of Army values andan important reminder of our duty to somethinglarger than ourselves

The Army recognizes environmentalstewardship as necessary to conserve the Nationsnatural resources and promote a world thatsupports the quality of life of future generationsAccordingly the Army executes no missionwithout addressing its environmental impactThe environmental program sustains readinessimproves the Army communitys quality of lifestrengthens community relationships andprovides sound stewardship of resourcesCompliance with environmental laws andregulations protects the environmentdemonstrates stewardship and prevents costlyfines and penalties The EnvironmentalCompliance Assessment System ECAS is thecornerstone for Army compliance These

Sustaining the Environmentexternal assessments are conducted at activeArmy installations National Guard facilities andArmy Reserve Centers In addition the Armyuses the Installation Status Report as an internalaudit system at all active and reserve installationsThis annual report highlights areas of excellencein an installations environmental program andpinpoints areas for improvementPollution prevention shifts the Armysenvironmental focus from compliance andrestoration to reduction or elimination ofpollution at the source before it enters theenvironment It provides a high return oninvestment through cost avoidance Pollutionprevention supports readiness by reducingmaintenance and supply costs through centralized

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management of hazardous materials Bypromoting nonhazardous substitutes forhazardous materials it reduces thevolume of hazardous waste disposed andthe associated compliance overheadPollution prevention supports Armymodernization through promotion ofmaterials and processes that precludefuture environmental liabilityConservation of natural and culturalresources preserves the Armys 12million acres for readiness activitiesConservation enables a realistic trainingenvironment it also provides a cleanhealthy environment for the recreationof soldiers their families and the generalpublicThrough the Installation Restoration Programthe Army has acted aggressively to evaluatecontamination from past practices and then takethe appropriate steps to restore affected areasTo evaluate a site the Army conducts a technicalassessment and classifies each site according to

their relative risks high medium or low TheDefense Planning Guidance DPG hasestablished goals for reducing all such sites by2014 The Army will fund restorationsufficiently to maintain progress towards meetingDPG goals

Over the last ten years the Army has madegreat progress in reducing costs and increasingthe effectiveness of its business processes Thelatest effortthe Defense Reform Initiativeincludes several efficiencies that are alreadyincluded in our Future Years Defense ProgramWe expect to achieve about 10 billion in savingsfrom efforts like the Revolution in MilitaryLogistics acquisition reform A76 costcompetitions and infrastructure managementinitiatives By reducing costs or improvingeffectiveness each of these programs has helpedthe Army to meet the requirements of the

Defense Reform and Army InitiativesAssuring A Revolution In Business Affairs

National Military Strategy as our force andfunding has grown significantly smallerThough not strictly a part of the DefenseReform Initiatives Total Army Quality TAQand Army Performance Improvement CriteriaAPIC support the intent of the DRI by fosteringefficient processes throughout the Army TAQan adaptation of successful commercialmanagement practices to the business ofmilitary readiness is the Armys strategicmanagement approach The APIC provides asystematic framework for assessing continuousimprovement through seven proven criteria

Fort Carson received awards from both the Secretary of the Armyand the Secretary of Defense last year for its use of innovativetechnologies and integration of pollution prevention techniques inmilitary operations

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They are based on the Malcolm Baldrige Criteriafor Performance Excellence used by leadingAmerican businesses and industry By applyingTAQ and APIC the Army is streamlining andcontinually improving business operations andpractices This is evidenced by the three Armyorganizations that have earned the PresidentialAward for Quality the highest recognition givenby the Federal government to organizations thatimplement best business managementtechniques strategies and performancepractices the US Army TankAutomotiveResearch Development and Engineering Centerin Warren MI 1995 the US Army ResearchDevelopment and Engineering Center inPicatinny Arsenal NJ 1996 and the US ArmyInfantry Center and Fort Benning in FortBenning GA 1997 TAQ has contributed tomany of the efficiencies discussed in this section

Reinvention The National Partnership for ReinventingGovernment NPR is an attempt to improve efficiency by implementing the imperatives of putting customers first empowering employeescutting red tape and eliminating activities thatdo not support core missions Army support forthis program has led to the creation of 47 reinvention laboratories and six reinvention centersThe commanders of these organizations have themandate to reinvent processes and waive DoDregulations as needed At the end of FY98 theArmy had implemented 333 reinvention waivers and in concert with DoD is developing aprocess to review reinvention waivers for broaderapplication departmentwide Armyreengineering efforts continue to receive executive branch recognition through competition forthe Vice Presidents Hammer Award The Hammer Award recognizes teams whose reinventionactions have led to new processes that support

the NPR imperatives Through FY98 55 Armyteams had received a Hammer Award The 23Hammer Awards approved last year FY98promise savings in excess of 465 million

Acquisition Reform Acquisition reform is a key component of theDefense Reform Initiative and has been a majorpart of the business transformation of the ArmyContinuing to lead the way in acquisition reformthe Army is acquiring equipment and servicesmore quickly and at less cost The Army continues to lead the way in acquisition reform Oursuccessful Government Purchase Credit Cardprogram for simplified acquisitions 95 percentusage led to the Deputy Secretary of Defensedirecting the Army to lead a joint Program Management Office This office is responsible forensuring that over 90 percent of DoD is usingthe card by January 1 2000 We are also a leaderin implementing the DoD paperless contracting initiative and are scheduled to completefielding of the Standard Procurement Systemsduring the first quarter of next fiscal year ThePast Performance Information Management System PPIMS has been another contributor toArmy contracting efficiency since it was implemented at the beginning of FY98 With PPIMScontracting officers can quickly check the pastperformance of contractors to determine theirhistory of contract execution Overall the Armyhas reduced its cost to contract per dollar obligated by over 50 percent in the last 14 yearsOur proactive training and continuing education program for Army contractors have beeninstrumental in the success of our acquisitionreform effort We are leading DoD in requiringand offering continuing education for its contracting workforce The Army Civilian Training Education Development plan requires contractors tocomplete 80 Continuing Education Units CEU

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every two years The Office of the DeputyAssistant Secretary of the Army Procurement awards CEUs for the AcquisitionReform training that it offers Since 1993the Army has trained over 12000 acquisition professionals on acquisition reform

Streamlining Civilian Personnel AdministrationIn response to NPR streamlining mandates to reduce overhead the Office ofthe Secretary of Defense OSD directedthe military departments to regionalize civilian personnel services The Army isleading DoD in the implementation of thisinitiative with regionalized civilian personnelservices in effect for approximately 96 percentof the Armys civilian workforce at the end ofFY98 Army Civilian Personnel OperationsCenters CPOCs achieve economies of scale byperforming automated functions that do not require facetoface interaction Small onsitestaffs at Civilian Personnel Advisory CentersCPACs remain at installations to provide advisory services to commanders managers supervisors and employees

Financial Management Financial management practices have steadilyimproved as DoD struggles to improve its accountability and stewardship of the nations resources In the Army these efforts are directlyresponsive to the Government Performance andResults Act GPRA and the Chief FinancialOfficers CFO Act The GPRA established in1993 requires Federal agencies to develop andestablish strategic plans performance measuresannual performance plans and performance reporting In support of DoD execution of GPRArequirements and in accordance with DoD guidance the Army continuously reviews and moni

tors its strategic plans and mission objectivesThe CFO Act established in 1990 puts the Federal government on a private industry standardfor financial reporting by requiring annual audited financial statements To meet the intent ofthis law the Army has made great progress inintegrating its functional and financial systemsto achieve singlesource transactiondriven financial control When completed decision makers will have accurate and timely financial management information and financial statementswith unqualified audit opinions

ActivityBased Costing ActivityBased Costing ABC is the Armystool for implementing cost management aprocess of continuous improvement that focuseson cost and performance to gain efficiencies andimprove operations Local managers trace thecost of resources consumed to provide productsor services The program encourages cost controlthrough rewards and incentives The Army hasa number of ABC efforts ongoing US ArmyForces Command FORSCOM is institutingABC methodologies across all of theirinstallations Installation directorates havedeveloped models to measure the cost of the

Acquisition Reform Week at US Army Forces CommandFORSCOM highlights acquisition reform efforts at manyFORSCOM installations

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garrison support activities These installationshave identified areas for business processreengineering through their ABC effortsTRADOC has ABC efforts underway at FortHuachuca AZ and Fort Knox KY ArmyMateriel Command has implemented ABC atPicatinny Arsenal NJ and Corpus Christi ArmyDepot TX

A76 Cost Competition Studies The Armys A76 Cost Competition Studiesare a major part of the Defense Reform InitiativeThese studies evaluate whether a given activitycan be provided most efficiently by a streamlinedgovernment work force or by a commercialprovider The Army plan is to complete A76studies of about 73000 positions by FY05including all commercial activities and someactivities currently considered governmentalSince FY79 the Army has completed A76 costcompetitions for functions covering over 25000positions Nearly twothirds of these positions13000 civilian and 2900 military wereconverted to contract The average savingsachieved by these studies either by outsourcingto a private competitor or instituting areengineered process within the current activityhas been about 28 percent of the precompetitioncost

Base Realignment and Closure Base Realignment and Closure BRAC is oneway the Army reduces its excess infrastructureThe Army has already closed 102 of the 112bases scheduled for closure in the United Statesand has nearly completed the 667 overseasclosures resulting from the BRAC process thusfar The Army is on schedule to complete theclosures authorized in the most recent BRACprocess

The annual savings from BRAC actionscurrently being implemented exceeds the annualcosts of implementation Although the Army willspend 52 billion implementing current BRACactions about 32 percent of that amount isinvested in constructing or modifying facilitiesat locations that are gaining realigned activitiesWith the completion of scheduled closures undercurrent BRAC authority in FY01 the Army willhave reduced its infrastructure by 30 percentsince the Cold War Additional base closurescan realize even more costeffective savingsWhile closing installations costs alot in the nearterm the longterm benefits in terms of Armyefficiencies and property made available forpublic use exceed the costs The Army supportsthe DoD position requesting additional BRACauthorizations as part of our continuing defensereform efforts

Other Infrastructure ManagementInitiatives In addition to implementing BRAC deci

sions the Army also has a host of other equallyimportant initiatives that contribute to improvedeconomic efficiency and combat capability inboth the active and reserve components TheArmy is reducing costs and managing its infrastructure more efficiently through several infrastructure management programs that are part ofthe Defense Reform Initiatives These effortsinclude initiatives to dispose of excess infrastructure use its infrastructure in innovative ways andprivatize utilities In 1997 the Army completedthe seventh year of a Facilities Reduction Program that disposed of more than 57 millionsquare feet of excess infrastructure By the endof FY99 we expect to have eliminated an additional 7 million square feet at a cost of 996million in FY99 RPM funds

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By the end of FY99 the Army will have eliminated 64 millionsquare feet of excess infra structure over eight years

Three major initiatives improve how theArmy uses its current infrastructure The firstmoves Army units from commerciallyleasedspace to renovated Army facilities Four Armyactivities were moved into renovated Armyfacilities in FY98 eliminating the expense ofleasing the 69500 square feet of commercialspace these activities required The FY99 budgetcontains another 159 million to constructbuildings and renovate space to support movinganother 35 activities out of commerciallyleasedspace by FY02The second initiative is to lease Army realproperty temporarily available for other use toprivate organizations in accordance with theprovisions of 10 USC 2667 The Army earnsabout 20 million annually in revenues and anunknown amount of inkind benefits through thisinitiativeUnder the third initiative the AssetManagement Strategy the Army seeks to obtainprivate sector financing to accomplishinstallation objectives and generate revenues inexchange for shared use of real property withcommercial firms The result is a winwinsituation for allthe Army the private sectorpartner the local community and the Americantaxpayer Three pilot Asset ManagementStrategy programs are currently underway atYuma Proving Ground AZ Picatinny ArsenalNJ and Fort Sam Houston TXThe utilities privatization initiative transfersownership and responsibility for operation

maintenance and upgrade of Armyownedutilities to the local utility provider who canensure safe efficient operation at a savings tothe Army The privatization goal is to transferownership of all Armyowned utilities by 30September 2003 except for those noteconomically justifiable or that meet uniquesecurity requirements Fortynine of the 1101Armyowned utilities have been privatized andprivatization has been determined eitherundesirable or economically unjustifiable foranother 34 One hundred thirtysix utilities arecurrently under study Eightyseven are eitherawaiting negotiation under negotiation or haverequests for proposal under development Theremaining 795 utilities require study

Logistics Efficiencies The Revolution in Military Logistics is amajor component of Army and DoD efforts forreducing costs The RML is also important toensuring that the Army remains dominant on thebattlefields of tomorrow The RML part of theDefense Reform Initiatives will convert Armylogistics over several years from a system basedon maintenance of large stockpiles mass to onebased on the ability to move required items tothe point they are needed at the time they areneeded This transition includes a number ofArmy logistics initiatives that offer potentialsavings of over 2 billion during the period FY98to FY03 RML initiatives follow three strategiesto achieve cost savings inventory reductionsthrough better management and faster deliveriesArmy repair parts inventories have been reduced95 billion or 50 percent from FY89 to FY98demand reductions through increased reliabilityof parts and cost reductions

Total Asset Visibility and Velocity

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Management Army Total Asset Visibility offersone example of a comprehensiveinitiative that will make the Army amore efficient organization whileenhancing Army warfightingcapabilities ATAV will realize theJV2010 operational concept of focusedlogistics It employs existing andemerging information technologies tofurnish managers and leadersthroughout the Army with informationon the location quantity conditionand movement of assets worldwideRadio frequency technology laseroptical technology and bar coding areexamples of technologies that allowArmy logisticians to monitor cargo movementsredirect crucial shipments and locate criticalsupplies We are currently able to track morethan three million types of equipment andsupplies throughout DoD and the ArmyIn support of the DoDdirected LateralRedistribution and Procurement Offset InitiativeATAV provides asset data to all services and tothe Defense Logistics Agency DLA Thisinformation is used to redistribute critical assetsto meet user requirementsA related initiative Velocity Managementachieves savings by substituting velocity rapiddelivery from wholesale level for mass largestockpiles in theater The work of a number ofprocess improvement teams PIT has served toaccelerate the overall delivery process TheOrderShip Time PIT for example has reducedOrderShip Time for high priority shipmentsworldwide by coordinating regular shipmentsbetween Army installations and the DLAproviding dedicated transportation support andeliminating wasted time in the supply distributionchain The key to improving Order Ship Time is

the fielding of the Standard Army Retail SupplySystemObjective SARSSO and relatedautomatic identification technology throughoutthe Army We are already seeing tangibleimprovements Comparisons conducted byRANDs Arroyo Center indicate our Order ShipTime results are far better than those of the privatesector

Integrated Sustainment Maintenance Integrated Sustainment Maintenance ISMstreamlines all maintenance organizations andactivities in the Army at general support levelthe second level of maintenance support abovethe using unit and higher by bringing them allunder a single management structure and byestablishing regional component repairprograms Centers of Excellence COE withineach region support several major commandsand all components of the Total Army COEfocus the demand for specific types ofmaintenance within a particular region Anationallevel management structure undercontrol of the Army Materiel Command provides

Barcodes and scanners helped track the 1st Cavalry Divisionsequipment when it was deployed to Bosnia last year

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interregion coordination Local SustainmentMaintenance Management LSMM offices feedinstallation requirements into the regional andnational system Cost savings from all facets ofISM are expected to total 142 million over theperiod from FY98 to FY03 Actual savings fromFY98 totaled 267 million

The Armys Operating and Support Cost Reductionprogram currently has 71 active projects and the ArmyAudit Agency has concluded that the program should save295 million over the FY9803 time period

Operating and Support CostReduction An internal initiative the Armys operating

and support cost reduction program seeks tolower costs by funding the redesign of selectedhighcost spare parts in order to increasereliability reduce manufacturing and repaircosts and optimize the financial benefit of repairinstead of replacement For instance adding areplaceable leading edge erosion strip to the tailrotor of the AH64 helicopter extends the life ofthe blade and is replaceable at depot maintenancelevel Through this measure the Army reducesthe frequency with which it must replace therelatively expensive tail rotor by adding a lessexpensive component to absorb wear and tearThe Armys Operating and Support CostReduction program currently has 71 activeprojects and the Army Audit Agency has

concluded that the program should save 295million over the FY9803 time period

Depot Consolidation and CompetitiveSourcing Depot consolidation and competitive

sourcing is an effort that balances the savingspossible through BRAC and commercialprocurement with the requirement to preserveorganic core depot capabilities as part ofAmericas industrial base From the BRACperspective there are obvious savings toconsolidating core capabilities at remainingdepots The relocation of core capabilities oftenallows commercial enterprises to move intovacated depot facilities Competitive sourcingof the depot workload has historically beenlimited by Title 10 USC Section 2466 to nomore than 40 percent of the total requiredworkload per fiscal year The FY98 DefenseAuthorization Act increased this threshold to 50percent allowing DoD to utilize the privatesector to perform more noncore depotmaintenance work

Prime Vendor Initiatives The Prime Vendor program is another majorDefense Reform Initiative A number ofprograms achieve savings for the Army byproviding one or more prime vendors with theArmys highvolume market for variouscommodities Prime vendor programs focusArmy purchases to allow vendors to achieveefficiencies possible with highvolume salesThe benefit is passed on to the Army throughthe reduced total cost of the purchasesA recent DoD success with SubsistencePrime Vendor SPV illustrates an additionalbenefit of this initiative Installations using SPV

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reduce Defense Logistics Agency depot supportdemands by procuring products through localprime vendors The DLA recently reduced itssurcharge for installations using SPV Thesurcharge reduction was in part the result ofdecreased operational costs in depot support due

to installation purchases from prime vendorsAll AC CONUS installations which have beenunder SPV since the end of FY97 benefitedfrom this surcharge reduction

As the largest Service component of the DoDthe Service with the largest reserve componentforce structure and the proponent of the ArmyCivil Works Program the Army has a specialrelationship with American communities nationwide Through over 190 major installations andmany thousands of readiness and reserve centers across the country the Army is rooted in thenation we serve

Americas Army The Community Next DoorMore Americans serve in the Total Army thanin any other branch of Service For manyAmericans and for many people around theworld contact with an American soldier is themost tangible contact with our government theyexperience Army leaders often say that soldiersare our credentials but American soldiers areAmericas credentials as well The nature of theArmys contribution to the NMS brings soldiersinto direct contact with civilians in ourcommunities and abroad to a greater extent thanfor any other branch of Service The Army is aquality team of Americas sons and daughtersrepresenting all Americans today The valuesdiversity and teamwork of our soldiers arecompelling examples for people at home andabroadContributing to the wellbeing of the nation

we serve both directly and indirectly Armyinstallations and organizations are goodneighbors for Americas communities Theyprovide a market for community goods andservices and are committed to safetyenvironmental stewardship and maintaininggood relations with local authorities The Armywas the largest single source of prime DoDcontracts those worth more than 25000 in 17states and the second largest source of suchcontracts in 19 additional states in FY97The 530000 soldiers of the Selected Reservebalance their military service with fulltimecivilian jobs These soldiers and their familiesbring the vitality of America to the Total ArmyThey also take Total Army values to their civilianendeavorsBy the same token American communitiessupport our soldiers Community organizationssponsor soldiers deployed around the world Ona recent Multinational Force and ObserversMFO peacekeeping deployment sponsoredunits received care packages of magazines anddisposable cameras from communityorganizations at home Soldiers returned picturesand letters describing their duties and activitiesGrassroots programs such as these buildmorale for deployed soldiers and keepcommunities in touch with the contributions oftheir Army

Army Installations and Organizations Good Neighbors Nationwide

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The values diversity and teamwork of our soldiers arecompelling examples forpeople at home and abroad

The Army Civil Works Program Civil Works missions conducted by the USArmy Corps of Engineers USACE areextremely beneficial to the Nation The Armysharbor projects are vital to the import and exporttrade and waterways maintained by the USACEhelp move intercity cargo Flood protectionprojects have prevented billions of dollars indamage The Army produces 25 percent of the

Nations hydropower and provides water to about10 million people Civil Works missions innatural resources water quality flood plainmanagement and toxic waste control assist theArmy in complying with Federal environmentalstatutes and help the Army maintain a grassrootspresence in communities across the NationThe Army maintains a force of approximately300 military and 27000 civilians supported bytens of thousands of contractor employees tocarry out the Civil Works program The USACEprovides the Army experience in manyspecialized fields This significant force standsready to meet the engineering and technical needsof the Army and the Nation

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ConclusionAmericas Army supports our Nation through more than simply our military capabilities Inaddition to doing Americas heavy lifting in the execution of the National Military Strategy thecharacter of Americas Armya community with a missionsupports the wellbeing of all American communities and the American people The Armys commitment to taking care of its soldiersand Army civilians benefits the Nation by fostering strong families safe communities andvolunteerism Our commitment to service makes Americas Army a good custodian of the Nationsfinancial natural and cultural resources For America the Total Army is a highyield investmentready to fight and win the Nations wars and striving to be all we can be

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Chapter 5Stretching the Fabric of the Army Recent funding constraints and increasing operational demands are stretching the fabricof our Army in three major areas people readiness and modernization During recenttestimony before Congress the Chief of Staff Army identified the need to increase the ArmysTotal Obligation Authority by 5 billion per year in addition to funding for contingencyoperations and increases in military pay and retirement In response Congress authorizeda FY99 supplemental funding measure which included 3775 million for Army readinessand 1859 million for contingency operations of which the Army received 1495 millionThe Presidents FY00 Budget builds on the progress begun with the supplemental The FY99supplemental appropriations and the FY00 Presidents Budget Request are steps in the rightdirection these measures begin to address our concerns in people and nearterm readinessModernization needs are being addressed with investment levels remaining roughly at thesame level as in FY99 with the expectation for increases in future yearsArmy concerns in people readiness and modernization programs voiced last year arereal concerns that cannot be addressed with a onetime funding fix or in one years budgetManning the force adequately by recruiting and retaining quality men and women requiresa sustained commitment to a pay and benefits package that makes military service acompetitive option The Army must also carefully manage PERSTEMPO and quality of lifewhile meeting the increased demands of the NMS To assure current readiness the Armyrequires more than just the OPTEMPO dollars that fund the bulk of Army training Sustainedadequate funding for contingency operations base operations and real property maintenancealso protect training dollars and enhance readiness Modernization is a continuous processthat requires disciplined investment to achieve and sustain an effective fighting forceThe complexities of readiness today require careful allocation of resources to meet nationalobjectives Readiness across the full range of missions we must perform to execute the NMSremains our fundamental precept The Armys increased role in the execution of the NMSsince the end of the Cold War requires increased resources for Army readiness The readinesswarning signs that emerged last year were a function of trying to meet expanded requirementswith reduced resources The FY00 Budget Request represents the best possible balance ofavailable resources applied across the priorities of people readiness and modernizationThese three areas require a sustained commitment to an increased level of funding for theArmy This chapter describes the issues associated with each area and points out how theFY00 Budget addresses many of the Armys concerns in the areas of people and currentreadiness for the coming year This budget with timely and nonoffset funding for anyunfunded contingencies will allow the Army to execute the NMS in FY00

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Quality soldiers are the single most importantfactor in achieving and sustaining readiness butrecruiting and retaining them is increasinglydifficult The Army must recruit train and retainenough soldiers to meet the requirements of 511different specialty skills needed to generate theArmys warfighting capabilities our studiesshow that the population of young males todayis less willing to enlist for military service thantheir counterparts of a decade ago Keencompetition for the quality people we seek toenlist and for those we seek to retain coupledwith a decrease in the propensity for militaryservice has doubled the cost to recruit a soldiersince 1986 To meet the challenge of attractingand retaining enough quality people for ourArmy it is important to reduce dissatisfactionwith compensation and restore the retirement

Taking Care of Peoplebenefits lost with the introduction of the MilitaryRetirement Reduction Act MRRA retirementplan We must also mitigate the challengingPERSTEMPO associated with executing theNMS and provide commanders the tools to helpthem manage PERSTEMPO and quality of life

Recruiting Retention and CompensationAs indicated in the chart on the next page theTotal Army is having difficulty recruitingsufficient numbers of highquality young menand women to meet requirements The ACmissed its FY98 target of 72550 new recruitsby 797 soldiers The United States ArmyRecruiting Command missed their USAR targetby 3729 soldiers and the ARNG fell 1237soldiers short of their recruiting goals

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Compounding this problem the cost ofrecruiting each individual soldier has doubledsince 1986 from 5300 to more than 10000Recruiting enough soldiers to meet our targetsis important for filling the ranks today but itis also critical to ensure that we have enoughhigh quality NCOs for the futureMeeting quality goals is another area ofconcern Eightynine percent of the TotalArmy FY98 enlistees who had no previousmilitary service were high school diplomagraduates Both the AC and the USAR metthe 90 percent target for high school diplomagraduates To achieve this goal however theactive component had to draw upon some of itspool of Delayed Entry Program DEP candidatesfor FY99 Because the DEP is traditionally away to begin building the pool of recruits for anygiven year the fact that we inducted some of theFY99 DEP pool in FY98 is making it harder tomeet this years goals Sixtyfive percent of TotalArmy nonpriorservice enlistees in FY98 hadAFQT scores in the top three ASVAB categoriesAll three components satisfied the third qualitycriterion by accepting two percent or less of nonprior service enlistees with AFQT scores inCategory IV The Army is resourcing itsrecruiting efforts to improve future recruitingperformanceBecause the recruiting goals of all threecomponents are higher for FY99 than they werelast year the Army has taken active steps toincrease the number of recruiters and revamp itsadvertising strategy The 13 million devotedto recruiting under the FY99 supplemental hashelped address the increased costs of recruitingby providing money for increased enlistedbonuses and additional advertising for the USAROther incentives include increasing the CollegeFund maximum from 40000 to 50000 and

extending enlistment bonus and Loan RepaymentProgram maximums In spite of these incentivescurrent projections indicate that the activecomponent will fall several thousand recruitsshort of its FY99 goal

Retention and Compensation Our soldiers and leaders are working hardFrequent deployments result in a challengingpace Because many of our soldiers havefamilies they must balance training andoperational deployments with Little Leaguechild care and other important responsibilitiesto their spouses and families Many of our singlesoldiers are among those still wrestling withimportant career choices For all of our soldierscompensation retirement benefits and qualityof life are important factors for determiningwhether they remain in the ArmyIn general the Army exceeded its retentionor reenlistment goals for FY98 Howeverthese overall percentages mask retentiondifficulties in certain ranks and specialty skillsBetween 1991 and 1998 the percentage of bothofficers and enlisted soldiers indicating theyintended to remain on active duty untilretirement declined by over five percentAccording to a recent Spring 1998 Sample

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Survey of Military Personnel the top tworeasons cited by officers for leaving the militarywere the amount of time they were separatedfrom their family and the amount of basic payThe top two reasons for leaving cited by enlistedsoldiers were the amount of pay they receive andthe quality of Army life The survey reflected astatistically significant increase up 56 percentfor officers and 69 percent for enlisted soldiersbetween 1993 and 1998 in the percentage ofboth officers and enlisted soldiers citinginadequate retirement pay as a reason for leavingthe Army These results confirm thatcompensation retirement benefits and qualityof life issues are important factors for recruitingand retaining quality people in our ArmyA soldiers regular military compensation hasthree components basic pay various cost ofliving allowances that accrue to each soldierbased on his or her marital status and area ofassignment and other factors such as hazardousduty special skill pay and deployment payMilitary pay raises have been capped at 5 percentbelow the Employment Cost Index ECI Overtime the perception of a gap between militarypay and pay for comparable work in the civilian

sector has grown to the point that it isa frequent complaint among soldiersResearch indicates soldiers believethey receive less pay than Americansdoing comparable work in the civiliansector The Army supports increasingpay over time but the money toachieve this goal must come from anincrease in the Armys TotalObligation Authority We cannotaccept further reductions in forcestructure or other Army accountswithout increasing readiness risksunacceptablyMilitary retirement pay is another factor thataffects individual decisions to enlist reenlist orremain in the Army Consequently changes tomilitary retirement can have repercussions forforce structure and readiness Depending onwhen they entered service our soldiers arecovered by one of three retirement plans Asshown in the graph at the top of the page eachof these retirement systems provide retiredsoldiers with some percentage of their base paymultiplied by the number of years of militaryservice As of the end of FY98 the 84 percentof the AC who entered service prior to 1980 wereunder the traditional plan the 144 percent whoentered service between 1980 and 1986 wereunder the High Three system and the 772percent who entered service after 1986 wereunder the MRRA system In addition to using asmaller percentage of base pay to calculate theretired benefit the MRRA system features asmaller annual cost of living allowance thatfurther erodes the benefit over time Thedisparity between the MRRA plan and the otherretirement systems is an issue of growing concernamong soldiers who will begin retiring under thisplan in 2006 For these and other reasons the

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Army opposes any further reduction in militaryretirement and supports the Administrationsproposal to restore the 20year retirement at 50percent of final base payThe Army is aggressively pursuing bettermarketing and recruiting techniques to help meetthe challenge of recruiting and retaining enoughquality people to assure readiness for today andtomorrow We support measures to reduce oursoldiers perception of a gap between military andcivilian pay and redress the disparity between theMRRA retirement plan and previous plans Oursuccess in recruiting and retention will ultimatelydepend on making military service attractive tothe pool of highquality young people eligible toserve

Managing PERSTEMPO Deployments and separations have always beena part of military life and the increased operationalcommitment of American soldiers abroadcombined with necessary readiness training andtraining deployments make them even morecommon today While the excitement of militarydeployments and travel is part of the attraction ofmilitary life for many people the time that soldiersspend away from home can negatively affectmorale quality of life recruiting and retention ifnot managed properly Deployments can alsodisrupt our units normal training rythymsparticularly when the deployments are for missionsthat emphasize nonstandard skillsThere are a number of benefits to thenontraditional missions the Army has been calledupon to execute in recent years We believe thepeace operations the Army is executing todayserve to reduce the need to respond to potentialcrises tomorrow Finally many Army combatsupport and logistics units are doing substantiallythe same thing in Bosnia and other peace

operations that they would in fullscale conflictAll soldiers participating in such operations getsome training benefit from their experiencewhether it is implementing rules of engagementconducting force protection missions orexecuting deployment operationsThese benefits notwithstanding howeverthe pace of operations since the end of the ColdWar has increased the wear and tear ofmilitary life Ongoing peacekeeping and peaceenforcement commitments affect many moreunits and soldiers than are actually deployed atany given time Because these missions requirespecial skills not associated with most combatunits normal wartime tasks units committedto peacekeeping and peace enforcement rolesmust conduct preparatory training before theydeploy and refresher training to regainwarfighting skill proficiency after they returnPeacekeeping and peace enforcement missionsalso require augmentation from sister units andfrom soldiers with certain lowdensity skills orMilitary Occupational Specialties MOS Thenet effect is that missions such as Bosnia affectthe combat readiness training of more units thanare actually deployed at any given time A goodrule of thumb to assess the readiness impact ofthese kinds of missions is to count twoadditional units as committed for each oneactually deployedThe increased pace of contingencyoperations and associated training cuts into timeavailable for home station training on essentialtasks This contributes to the decline inproficiency noted in our CTCs We are stillproficient but we are not as proficient as wewere a few years agoThe employment of the reserve componentsfor contingency operations helps the Armymanage PERSTEMPO The RC has been a big

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contributor and has helped greatly in ourmissions abroad We need the RC to conductoperations if we are to sustain readiness trainingand manage PERSTEMPO With the expansionof Total Army integration initiativesemployment of reserve forces will increase in thefuture For example the 49th Armored DivisionARNG will provide the division headquartersfor the Bosnia mission in FY00While the employment of the 49th ArmoredDivision is significant the Army must manageRC PERSTEMPO also The PERSTEMPOimpact on a reserve component unit performinga mission such as Bosnia is even greater than theimpact on AC units Including the time requiredto conduct the necessary preparatory trainingcommitting RC soldiers to Bosnia requires us topull them away from their jobs and from theiremployers for about a year When one considersthat over 16000 RC soldiers have served inBosnia thus far and the Army will continue torely on their contribution the message is clearWe must manage RC PERSTEMPO carefullyTotal Army Integration initiatives offer avariety of combinations to capitalize on thestrengths of the various components and manage

PERSTEMPO We must explore these initiativesto help continue the effective use of both AC andRC units in peacekeeping and peace enforcementroles while minimizing the costs and negativeimpacts on individuals and units For this reasonthe divisional teaming initiative focusesextensively on keeping the main efforts of thereserve components on missions like HomelandDefense and Disaster Relief These are importantmissions and they are compatible with thespecial PERSTEMPO considerations ofemploying RC personnel in peacetimeManaging PERSTEMPO is an importantconsideration for Army operations ExcessivePERSTEMPO is one of a number of factors thatcan undermine the attractiveness of military lifeand erode our ability to recruit and retain qualitypeople Commanders must manage soldierPERSTEMPO while meeting the demands oftheir operational and training missions We canhelp commanders manage some PERSTEMPOby funding modernization training BASOPSand RPM because the equipment and otherresources available to our soldiers affect the timeit takes to accomplish necessary training and tomaintain equipment

From FY89 to FY99 Army Total ObligationAuthority declined 37 percent in FY00 dollarsnormalized for onetime transfers TheArmys share of Department of Defense TOAdeclined from 275 percent in FY89 to 25percent in FY99 Concurrently the Army hasplayed an increasing role in executing theNational Military Strategy providing over 60percent of the people for 32 of the 36 majormilitary operations since the end of the Cold

Concerns With Readiness and ModernizationWar While we have preserved readiness fortoday by deferring modernization and takingadvantage of our soldiers extraordinary effortssustaining readiness requires increasedresourcing to enable the Army to take care ofpeople meet current readiness requirements andprepare for the futureThe difference between funding levels andactual readiness costs in the last decade hasrequired Army leaders to take increased risk in

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modernization including recapitalization andmaintenance of facilities so they could resourcecurrent readiness The funding for many of thedirect costs associated with trainingOPTEMPO has also suffered in part due to themigration of funds to shore up readinessrelatedelements of BASOPS and RPM The FY00Budget provides funds to address the mostsignificant of our nearterm readiness concernsFunding current readiness and taking care ofpeople precludes increasing modernizationaccounts at this time

Readiness Properly resourced training prepares ourquality soldiers to do their current jobs andassume increased responsibilities in the futureAssets such as our combat training centers makethe American Army the besttrained Army in theworld Frequent deployments and scarceresources however have decreased our abilityto conduct homestation unit field training atbattalion and brigade level in recent years Theresult has been a major challenge in maintainingunit proficiency between CTC rotationsArmy leaders plan training in detailintegrating their training plans with other unitsto ensure that training is properly resourced andefficient Leaders evaluate training and leadafter action reviews AARs with all participantsto ensure soldiers get the maximum benefit fromeach event This systematic approach allows theArmy to identify resource requirements withsome precision Additional resourcerequirements identified in recent testimonybefore Congress included fully funding thetraining costs of some RC units upgradingranges Armywide to support quality trainingwith our most modern weapon systems andtargetry and protecting OPTEMPO dollars from

being used for funding contingency operationsor other readinessrelated expenses Althoughfunding for CONOPs must be addressed witheach new contingency the FY00 BudgetRequest satisfies most of the nearterm readinessrequirements we have identifiedRecent funding constraints have forced theArmy to adopt a tieredresourcing strategy tofund training for firsttofight units Theresource tiers are related to a given units placein one of four force packages Force PackagesFP are groupings of units based on their orderof anticipated commitment to supportcontingencies Units in FP 1 through 3 arefunded for 100 percent of the operations spareparts and training costs associated with eachunits Combined Arms Training StrategyCATS We have not been able to fully fundtraining for reserve component units in FP4 inrecent years The FY00 Budget and outyearplan increases OPTEMPO funding for theseunitsThe Army must also upgrade its rangefacilities to ensure soldiers are properly trainedto employ new weapon systems andtechnologies Ranges must enable training atgreater distances and must allow the integrationof weapon systems with informationtechnologies The Army Ranges and TrainingLands Requirements Review and PrioritizationBoard has prioritized 157 range and training landprojects These projects include digital rangesto support our modern weapon systems urbanterrain training facilities and qualificationranges High quality ranges with advanced targetsystems are important tools to train soldiers tofire and maneuver effectively and safely Suchranges contribute to reducing fratricide incombat The budget request funds someimprovements to ranges in FY00 with additional

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funding planned through FY05Contingency deployments have becomeroutine in recent years Since they are technicallyunforeseen requirements they generally are notfunded in advance When the Army sendssoldiers to these deployments the funding comesout of our TOA for the year of executionspecifically it comes out of our OPTEMPOfunds These funds also support our trainingWhen a large chunk of this money isunexpectedly committed to cover the costs of acontingency mission the training that money wasearmarked to support is jeopardized Though thefunding may eventually be provided there is noway to recapture the lost time if a training eventmust be cancelled Timely nonoffsetreimbursement for contingency missions isessential to protect training The FY00 Budgetprovides funding for known contingencyoperations

BASOPS and RPM BASOPS and RPM accounts are importantThey affect readiness because they fund theinstallation facilities and activities that supporttraining maintenance and deployment Theyalso affect morale by impacting the quality oflife of soldiers and their families In the FY00Budget and outyear plan our BASOPS and RPMaccounts are funded at 95 percent and 75 percentof requirements respectively RPM fundingincreases to 90 percent from FY02 through FY05Deterioration of facilities and activities thatsupport training maintenance and deploymentover the past several years resulting fromunderfunded BASOPS and RPM accounts hasforced commanders to use training money toprovide needed funds for the maintenance ofreadinessrelated infrastructure In an effort toidentify the readinessrelated components of

these two accounts more clearly for the purposeof readiness reporting the Army has developedthe concept of Operational Readiness OPREDThe OPRED concept will give better visibilityto the resources needed to fund the infrastructurethat contributes to readiness This includesinfrastructure such as ranges land powerprojection facilities and facilities housing supplyoperations TADSS and maintenance activitiesThe FY00 budget and outyear plan fundBASOPS and RPM at a level that should helpstem the migration of training money and willallow the Army to prevent further deteriorationof critical facilitiesBetter funding of RPM will also makes iteasier to streamline infrastructure As describedin the previous chapter the Army is pursuing awide range of programs that divest excessinfrastructure to free resources for better care ofneeded facilities Divestiture takes place througha number of programs ranging from BaseRealignment and Closure BRAC to demolitionof old facilities unsuitable for other purposesProper funding of RPM facilitates getting rid ofunusable facilities and saves the money thatwould otherwise be spent on them

Modernization Shaping and responding operations competefor the same limited resources needed tomodernize At the same time the increased wearand tear on Army equipment associated withsupporting contingency operations causes ahigher than programmed toll on that equipmentsuseful life thus shortening potential life cyclesand further increasing the need forrecapitalization Maintaining current readinessat the cost of modernization has resulted inslowing stretching or canceling key programsIn accepting the inefficiencies of these actions

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the Army has deferred the capabilities thesesystems would provideDeclining Army TOA has had the most acuteeffect in our modernization accounts Over thepast decade Army Research Development andAcquisition funding has dropped 47 percentFurthermore Army RDA spending constitutesonly 16 percent 14 billion including ChemicalDemilitarization funds of total DoD RDAdollars In acquisition procurement programsare generally most efficient and yield the lowestcost per item when manufacturers can produceequipment at rates that optimize the efficiencyof production facilities and people Due tofunding constraints the Army has terminated orrestructured over 100 programs since 1987 andhas maintained procurement programs atminimum sustaining rates rather than moreefficient rates

While the funding increases contained in theFY00 budget begin to address many concerns inthe areas of people and nearterm readiness theArmy continues to carry the largest burden ofrisk in its modernization funding This budgetholds modernization accounts at roughly thesame level as last year This level of funding issufficient to sustain our highest priority programsat the minimum essential levels to ensuredevelopment of future capabilities but at a paceslower than desired The Army expects to beable to fund modernization at a higher level infuture years Among the priorities for these fundswill be increasing the pace for the modernizationof soldier support systems replacement of agingequipment improvement of combat systemsprocurement of modernized munitionsexpansion of RC modernization and Force XXIdigitization

The FY00 Budgetsubmission for the Armytotals 674 billion Thechart to the right shows boththe FY99 current yearbudget and the proposedFY00 budget by majorspending categoriesThe budget reflectsalmost a 20 billion increasefrom last years budgetIncreases in funding forcontingencies payretirement and neartermreadiness are included Thebudget funds OPTEMPO at100 percent for both AC andRC units in Force Packages

Resources Available The FY00 Budget

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FP 1 through 3 OPTEMPO for the RC unitsin FP4 has been increased Funding for BASOPScovers 95 percent of requirements This increasefrom last years budgeted level of 84 percent 91percent after the supplemental is significantbecause it will reduce the need to migrate fundsfrom OPTEMPO accounts Funding for RPM is75 percent which is also an increase from lastyear This level of Real Property Maintenance

funding will allow the Army to begin reversingthe deterioration of its facilities and anticipatedincreases to 90 percent of requirements in futureyears will enable a modest revitalization programbeginning in FY03 By providing funds formodernizing ranges the budget supports anotherkey nearterm readiness requirement Finallythe budget funds modernization programs atroughly the same level as last year

Conclusion Todays Total Army is onethird smaller than the Cold War Army yet it conducts many timesthe number of operations per year as that larger force The NMS places unique demands on AmericasArmy and American soldiers because of the nature of our missions as well as the nature of ourreadiness and modernization requirements The Army should receive resources commensuratewith its role in executing the NMSAssuring readiness for today and for the 21st century requires a steady commitment to providingfunds for people readiness and modernization The cost avoidances made possible by reduceddefense spending in the wake of the Cold War now in excess of 750 billion dollars support such

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a commitment Adequately funding readiness requires keeping BASOPS and RPM accounts atlevels that protect training dollars Contingency operation funding must be provided early andmust come above the Armys top line Adequate funding is essential to preparing American soldiersfor the full spectrum of military operations necessary to support national securityAttracting and retaining quality people requires funding the programs that provide those peopleand their families with an adequate quality of life At a time when the NMS requires sendingsoldiers abroad more than at any time in recent history we must strive to improve pay and retirementto a level that provides adequate compensation for a career of service to our Nation In short wemust let Americas sons and daughters know that the Nation values their service By providingfunds to increase pay the FY00 Budget sends the right message at a critical time to our soldierscivilians and familiesThe FY00 Budget addresses most of the Armys people and current readiness concernsModernization funding continues at roughly the same level as in FY99 which allows the Army tosustain its highest priority programs The Army will continue to do our part to implement DefenseReform Initiatives and other costsaving measures to help generate funding for unfundedmodernization prioritiesShaping responding and preparing nowthe elements of our NMSare landpower intensiveand are essential to protecting Americas interests The Army has been increasingly and almostcontinuously called upon to commit our soldiers to operations that serve the Nations interestsboth at home and around the world The execution of the NMS has dramatically increased theoperational pace of Americas Army even as we have reduced the size of that Army by onethirdThe proper execution of the Armys substantial piece of this strategy demands adequate resourcingAmerican soldiers trained and ready serving the Nations interests around the world deserve noless

We must be prepared to pay the price for peace or assuredly we will pay the price for warPresident Harry S Truman

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84Army Posture Statement FY00

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AANArmy After NextATCCSArmy Tactical Command andControl SystemABCActivityBased CostingABCSArmy Battle CommandSystemACactive componentACOMAtlantic CommandACRIAfrican Crisis ResponseInitiativeADArmored DivisionADRSArmy National GuardDivision Redesign StudyAEAArmy Enterprise ArchitectureAECPArmy ExperimentationCampaign PlanAFAPArmy Family Action PlanAFQTArmed Forces QualificationTestAFTBArmy Family Team BuildingALCPArmy Leader Campaign PlanAORArea of ResponsibilityAPICArmy PerformanceImprovement Criteria

ARNGArmy National GuardASMPArmy Strategic MobilityProgramASVABArmed Services VocationalAptitude BatteryATACMSArmy Tactical Missile SystemATFPAntiTerrorismForceProtectionAV2010Army Vision 2010AWEAdvanced WarfightingExperiment

BASOPSbase operationsBATBrilliant AntiArmorSubmunitionBCTPBattle Command TrainingProgramBMDOBallistic Missile DefenseOrganizationBRACBase Realignment andClosure

CACivil AffairsCATSCombined Arms TrainingStrategyCCTTClose Combat Tactical

AcronymsTrainerCENTCOMCentral CommandCEUcontinuing education unitCFOChief Financial OfficerCHAMPUSCivilian Health and MedicalProgram of the UniformedServicesC4ISRCommand ControlCommunications Computerand Intelligence Surveillanceand ReconnaissanceCMTCCombat Maneuver TrainingCenterCOECenters of ExcellenceCONOPScontingency operationsCONUScontinental United StatesCPACCivilian Personnel AdvisoryCenterCPOCCivilian Personnel OperationsCenterCTCCombat Training Center

DLADefense Logistics AgencyDLEADrug Law Enforcement AgencyDoDDepartment of Defense

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86 Army Posture Statement FY00DPGDefense Planning Guidance

ECASEnvironmental ComplianceAssessment SystemECIEmployment Cost IndexEPLRSVHSICEnhanced Position Locating andReporting SystemVery HighSpeed Integrated CircuitEXFORexperimental force

FAADC2Forward Area Air DefenseCommand and ControlFBCB2Force XXI Battle CommandBrigade and BelowFLIRforwardlooking infrared radarFMTVFamily of Medium TacticalVehiclesFORSCOMForces CommandFPForce PackageFSGFamily Support GroupFSPForce Support PackageFYfiscal year

GBCSGroundbased CommonSensorGCCSAGlobal Command and ControlSystemArmy

GPRAGovernment Performanceand Results ActGPSGlobal Prepositioning SystemGRCSGuardrail Common Sensor


IDInfantry DivisionISVIntegrated SustainmentMaintenanceITASImproved Target AcquisitionSystem

JSTARSJoint Surveillance TargetAttack Radar SystemJTFJoint Task ForceJTRSJoint Tactical Radio System

LMSRLarge MediumSpeed RollonRolloff VesselLOTSLogisticsOvertheShoreLSMMLocal SustainmentMaintenance Management

MCSManeuver Control SystemMEADSMedium Extended Air DefenseSystem

MEDRETEMedical Readiness TrainingExerciseMFOMultinational Force andObserversMLRSMultiple Launch Rocket SystemMOSMilitary OccupationalSpecialtyMRRAMilitary Retirement ReductionActMRSMobility Requirements StudyMTWMajor Theater WarMWRMorale Welfare andRecreation

NATONorth Atlantic TreatyOrganizationNCONoncommissioned officerNEONoncombatant EvacuationOperationNMDNational Missile DefenseNMSNational Military StrategyNSD APLnonself destructing antipersonnel landmineNSSNational Security StrategyNTCNational Training Center

OCONUSout of the continental UnitedStates

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87 httpwwwarmymilOSDOffice of the Secretary ofDefenseOMAOperations and ReadinessArmyOPFORopposing forceOPREDOperational ReadinessOPTEMPOoperations tempo

PAC3Patriot Advanced Capability3PACOMPacific CommandPERSTEMPOPersonnel TempoPfPPartnership for PeacePITprocess improvement teamPSRCPresidential Selected ReserveCallupPSYOPpsychological operations

QDRQuadrennial Defense Review

RAIDRapid Assessment and InitialDetection detachmentRCreserve componentRMARevolution in MilitaryAffairsRMLRevolution in MilitaryLogistics

RORORollonRolloff VesselROWPUReverse Osmosis WaterPurification UnitRPMreal property maintenance

SARSSOStandard Army Retail SupplySystemObjectiveSEPSystem Enhancement ProgramSINGCARSSingle Channel Ground andAirborne Radio SystemSIPSystem Improvement ProgramSOFSpecial Operations ForcesSOUTHCOMSouthern CommandSPVSubsistence Prime VendorSSMPSample Survey of MilitaryPersonnelSWASouthwest Asia

TADLPTotal Army Distance LearningProgramTAQTotal Army QualityTASSTotal Army School SystemTATSCTotal Army Training SystemCoursewareTAVTotal Asset VisibilityTHAADTheater HighAltitude AirDefense

TMDTheater Missile DefenseTOATotal Obligation AuthorityTRADOCTraining and DoctrineCommandTRICARENew system replacingCHAMPUS

UAVUnmanned Aerial VehicleUNUnited NationsUSARUnited States Army ReserveUSOUnited Services Organization

WMDweapons of mass destructionWRAPWarfighting Rapid AcquisitionProgram

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88 Army Posture Statement FY00

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Section 517 b2A The promotion rate for officers considered for promotion from within thepromotion zone who are serving as active component advisors to units of the Selected Reserve ofthe Ready Reserve in accordance with that program compared with the promotion rate for otherofficers considered for promotion from within the promotion zone in the same pay grade and thesame competitive category shown for all officers of the Army For FY98 the promotion rate to Majorwas 672 for officers serving as Active component advisors to the Selected Reserve The promotionrate to Lieutenant Colonel was 3855 The table below compares these rates with the Army average aswell as rates within other selected commands

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A2 Army Posture Statement FY00Section 517b2B The promotion rate for officers considered for promotion from below thepromotion zone who are serving as active component advisors to units of the Selected Reserve ofthe Ready Reserve in accordance with that program compared in the same manner as the paraabove The promotion rates for officers within the promotion zone and below the zone are summarizedbelow

ACRC ARMY AVG ACRC BZ ARMY BZFY98 MAJ 672 768 44 65FY98 LTC 3855 675 00 34

Section 521b1 The number and percentage of officers with at least two years of activeduty before becoming amember of the Army National Guard and the number and percentage of officers with at least twoyears of activeduty before becoming a member of U S Army Reserve Selected Reserve units In FY98there were 17479 officers with at least two years of activeduty before becoming a member of a USArmy Selected Reserve unit for a percentage of 5187 The Army National Guard ARNG has 19077or 4853 of the assigned officer strength with at least two years of activeduty before becoming amember of the Army National Guard

2 The number and percentage of enlisted personnel with at least two years of activeduty beforebecoming a member of the Army National Guard or the US Army Reserve Selected Reserve unitsIn FY97 there were 55375 soldiers with at least two years of activeduty before becoming a member of aU S Army Selected Reserve unit for a percentage of 3698 The Army National Guard has 155144 or4801 of the assigned enlisted strength with at least two years of activeduty before becoming amember of the ARNG

3 The number of officers who are graduates of one of the service academies and were releasedfrom active duty before completion of their activeduty service obligation 92 officers who weregraduates of one of the service academies were released from active duty before they completed theiractive duty service obligation in FY 98 Of those officers

A the number who are serving the remaining period of their activeduty service obligation asa member of the Selected Reserve pursuant to section 1112a1 of ANGCRRA 39 academygraduates are serving the remainder of their active duty commitments as members of the SelectedReserve

B the number for whom waivers were granted by the Secretary under section 1112a2 ofANGCRRA together with the reason for each waiver No officer received waivers by the Secretaryof the Army in FY 98

4 The number of officers who were commissioned as distinguished Reserve Officers TrainingCorps graduates and were released from active duty before the completion of their activedutyservice obligation 18 officers who were commissioned as Distinguished Reserve Officers TrainingCorps graduates were released from active duty before they completed their activeduty serviceobligation Of these officers

A the number who are serving the remaining period of their activeduty service obligation as

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A3 httpwwwarmymila member of the Selected Reserve pursuant to section 1112a1 of ANGCRRA ten officers whowere commissioned as Distinguished Reserve officers Training Corps Graduates are now serving in theSelected Reserve

B the number for whom waivers ere granted by the Secretary under section 1112a2 ofANGCRRA together with the reason for each waiver No officer received waivers by the Secretaryof the Army in FY 98

5 The number of officers who are graduates of the Reserve Officers Training Corps programand who are performing their minimum period of obligated service in accordance with section1112b of ANGCRRA by a combination of A two years of active duty and B such additionalperiod of service as is necessary to complete the remainder of such obligation served in the NationalGuard and of those officers the number for whom permission to perform their minimum period ofobligated service in accordance with that section was granted during the preceding fiscal yearTwentyfour ROTC graduates were released after serving a minimum of two years of active dutyEffective FY95 the Army initiated a program to insure these officers have a letter of acceptance from aNational Guard or Army Reserve unit prior to release from Active Duty

6 The number of officers for whom recommendations were made during the preceding fiscalyear for a unit vacancy promotion to a grade above first lieutenant and of those recommendationsthe number and percentage that were concurred in by an active duty officer under section 1113aof ANGCRRA shown separately for each of the three categories of officers set forth in section1113b of ANGCRRA

ARMY NATIONAL GUARDIn the Army National Guard FY 98 the number of officers recommended for a unit vacancypromotion was 958 All of these officers were approved for promotion

US ARMY RESERVEThe US Army Reserve FSP units promoted 11 officers by unit vacancy promotion in FY 98The remaining units promoted 39 officers by unit vacancy boards in FY 98 The Army Reserve does nothave a federal recognition program like the National Guard US Army Reserve unit vacancy boards arecentralized under HQDA management Active duty officers are an integral part of all the US ArmyReserves unit vacancy board selections

7 The number of waivers during the preceding fiscal year under section 1114a of ANGCRRA ofany standard prescribed by the Secretary establishing a military education requirement fornoncommissioned officers and the reason for each such waiver There were no waivers granted inFY98 for either the ARNG or the USAR

8 The number and distribution by grade shown for each State of personnel in the initial entrytraining and nondeployability personnel accounting category established under 1115 of ANGCRRAfor members of the Army National Guard who have not completed the minimum training requiredfor deployment or who are otherwise not available for deployment and a narrative summarizingprocedures to be followed in FY98 to account for members of the USAR who have not completedthe minimum training required for deployment or who are otherwise not available for deployment

NATIONAL GUARDThe number and distribution of ARNG soldiers in initial entry training and other

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A4 Army Posture Statement FY00nondeployable personnel accounting status are maintained by National Guard Bureau The total numberof nondeployables in the ARNG is 31076 Information by grade and state is maintained by NationalGuard Bureau NGB

ARMY RESERVEThe US Army Reserve identifies the number and distribution of nondeploying personnel inthe Units Status Report USR In the Reserve Forces DoD requires a complete USR each quarter andchange report in each month that a change occurs

9 The number of members of the Army National Guard shown for each State that weredischarged during the previous fiscal year pursuant to 1115c1 of ANGCRRA for not completingthe minimum training required for deployment within 24 months after entering the NationalGuard and a narrative summarizing procedures to be followed in FY98 for discharging membersof the USAR who have not completed the minimum training required for deployment within 24months of entering the USAR

NATIONAL GUARD NoneARMY RESERVE Soldiers who have not completed minimum training required for deployment within24 months of entering the US Army Reserve are discharged in accordance with Army Regulations 135175 Separation of Officers and 135178 Enlisted Separations Enrollment and completion of minimumtraining requirements are monitored through personnel Total Army Personnel Database Reserve andtraining Army Training And Requirements Resources System databases that identify USAR soldiersmilitary education and their adherence to regulatory guidelines

10 The number of waivers shown for each State that were granted by the Secretary during theprevious fiscal year under section 1115c2 of ANGCRRA of the requirement in section 1115c1of ANGCRRA described in paragraph 9 together with the reason for each waiver Account wasfully implemented in July 1994 During FY98 there were no waivers granted within either the NationalGuard or the US Army Reserve

11 The number of Army National Guard members shown for each State and the number of USArmy Reserve members shown by each Army Reserve CommandGeneral Officer Command whowere screened during the preceding fiscal year to determine whether they meet minimum physicalprofile standards required for deployment and of those members

A the number and percentage who did not meet minimum physical profile standardsrequired for deployment 39706 soldiers were screened medically and 1159 failed to meet theminimum physical profile standards required for deployment for a percentage of 291 of all soldiersscreened

B the number and percentage who were transferred pursuant to section 116 of ANGCRRAto the personnel accounting category described in paragraph 8 186 soldiers were transferred to thepersonnel accounting code category described in paragraph 8

11 The number of members and the percentage of total membership of the Army NationalGuard shown for each State and of the U S Army Reserve shown by each Army ReserveCommandGeneral Officer Command who underwent a medical screening during theprevious fiscal year as provided in section 1117 of ANGCRRA During FY98 253911 or 69

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A5 httpwwwarmymilof Army National Guard members completed medical screening During FY98 39706 or 216 ofUSAR unit members completed medical screening

13 The number of members and the percentage of the total membership of the Army NationalGuard shown for each State and the number of members and the percentage of the totalmembership of the U S Army Reserve shown for each Army Reserve CommandGeneral OfficerCommand who underwent a dental screening during the previous fiscal year as provided in section1117 of ANGCRRA Note Funding is not approved for implementing this provision at this timeFunds were not available to conduct dental screening during FY98 Twenty percent of USAR membersreceived a visual check by a physician not a dentist during their periodic physical exam This is not atrue dental screen which by definition of the Dental Consultant at the Army Surgeon Generals officewould have to be performed by a dentist to include xrays of teeth

14 The number of members and the percentage of the total membership of the Army NationalGuard shown for each State and the number of members and the percentage of the total SelectedReserve unit membership of the U S Army Reserve shown for each Army Reserve CommandGeneral Officer Command over the age of 40 who underwent a full physical examination duringthe previous fiscal year for purposes of section 1117 of ANGCRRA Section 1074a of Title 10 coversthe requirement for full physical examinations personnel over 40 and annual medical screenings allpersonnel The over 40 population of the Army National Guard is 77170 or 209 of the totalmembership Of the over 40 population 13234 171 received full physical exams during FY98National Guard Bureau maintains the state breakdown The over 40 population of the USAR unitmembership is 43957 or 24 of the total unit membership Of the over 40 population 7588 173received full physical exams during FY98

15 The number of units of the Army National Guard and the U S Army Reserve that arescheduled for early deployment in the event of a mobilization and of those units the number thatare dentally ready for deployment in accordance with section 1118 of ANGCRRA Section 1118 ofthe ANGCRRA was repealed in Section 740 of the 1996 ANGCRRA The requirement for annualmedical screenings and care is now covered under Section 1074a of Title 10 155 Army National Guardunits and 371 USAR units are scheduled for early deployment in the event of mobilization Dentalreadiness screening has not begun due to lack of approved funding in FY99

16 The estimated postmobilization training time for each Army National Guard combat andFSP unit and US Army Reserve FSP unit and a description displayed in broad categories and byState for Army National Guard units and by the ARCOMGOCOM for US Army Reserve unitsof what training would need to be accomplished for Army National Guard combat and CFP unitsand US Army Reserve units in a postmobilization period for purposes of section 1119 ofANGCRRA

A Estimated time required by units for postmobilization training is reported through the UnitStatus Report and is available from the unit readiness rating system This classified information is nowincluded in classified summary tables of unit readiness which are compiled and reported by DCSOPSDAMOODR

B Information on types of training required by units during postmobilization is maintained byCONUSA That information is summarized in paragraphs and tables that are maintained by DCSOPSDAMOTRC1 Types of postmobilization training required for Enhanced Separate Brigades eSB

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A6 Army Posture Statement FY00can be generally categorized as maneuver attack defend protect the force gunnery and NBC defenseTables showing types of postmobilization training required for each eSB is maintained by DCSOPSDAMOTR2 Types of postmobilization training required for Force Support package FSP unitscan be generally categorized as Common Task Testing NBC Defense Force Protection SustainmentCommand and Control Weapons Qualification and Tactical communications Training Virtually allunits also required branch specific technical training to meet deployment standards Tables showingtypes of postmobilization training required for FSP1 and FSP2 units organized by component and branchare maintained by DCSOPS DAMOTR

Enhanced BrigadesInitiatives continue to ensure that each Enhanced Brigade is prepared to deploy within 90 days of itsmobilization Mobilization timelines will coincide with availability of training areas and lift capabilityFORSCOMArmy National Guard Regulation 3502 which is currently being rewritten remains theguidepost for Enhanced Brigade training in the near term Specific data regarding the trainingrequirements of the individual Enhanced Brigades is maintained by Directorate of Operations G3Forces Command

The following diagram depicts the PostMobilization Training phases of the ARNG Enhanced Brigades


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A7 httpwwwarmymilThe following diagram demonstrates how ARNG Enhanced Brigades would flow into thevarious postmobilization training sites


17 A description of the measures taken during the preceding fiscal year to comply with therequirement in section 1120 of ANGCRRA to expand the use of simulations simulators andadvanced training devices and technologies for members and units of the Army National Guardand the US Army Reserve The ARNG has continued to incorporate simulation and simulators intoindividual crewteam platoon and battalion and brigade battlestaff training The ARNGs use of virtualand constructive simulation provides a solution to reduced funding and a method to increase individualand unit readinessThe use of virtual simulators provides for increased proficiency when the crewteam move intothe collective training event The ARNG has been fielding the Abrams FullCrew Interactive Simulation

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A8 Army Posture Statement FY00Trainer AFIST a fullcrew precision gunnery trainer for armor units and the Engagement SkillsTrainer EST There are currently two mobile platoon sets of the Close Combat Tactical Trainer CCTTbeing used by the ARNG There is one platoon set for each of the Abrams and the Bradley versions of theMCCTT The two MCCTT platoon sets are currently based at Camp Beauregard Louisiana The EST isa multitask trainer for dismounted infantry teams and squads The EST also functions as amarksmanship trainer and training support tool for mortars the Mark 19 40mm Grenade Launcher andother crewserved weapons They have fielded the Fire Support Combined Arms Tactical TrainerFSCATT Howitzer Crew Trainer HCT the GUARDFIST II Guard Armory Device FullcrewInteractive Simulation Trainer GFII observed fire trainer and the Digital Systems Test and TrainingSimulator DSTATS for Field Artillery units The ARNG has also expanded collective battlestafftraining using SIMITAR Janus and the USARs Brigade and Battalion Battlestaff Simulation SystemBBS

The Total Army Distance Learning Program TADLP is in the process of establishing DistanceLearning DL classrooms on Active Army Posts in Total Army School System TASS battalionsquartered in National Guard Armories and in Army Reserve Centers These classrooms will be used byall components of the Army to include the civilian workforce The National Guard has been aggressivelypursuing the establishment of additional DL classrooms with special Congressional funds Currently theGuard has placed 32 DL classrooms into operation In FY 1998 an additional 112 were planned forinstallation which would bring the total to approximately 144 operational DL classrooms The additionof hardware software and an integrated strategy now provides the Total Army with a method todistribute training to a large geographic area The Army Reserve has also developed plans for fielding DLclassrooms beginning in FY 1998

The Simulation Brigades US Army Reserve Divisions Exercise DivEx under the TrainingSupport XXI TSXXI training initiative conduct Battle Command and Staff Training BCST annuallyto Force Support Packages FSP units units with a Latest Arrival Date LAD of less than 30 daysDivisional Round Out units and ARNG Enhanced Separate Brigades eSB All other units conductBCST triennially Five USAR Battle Projection Centers BPCs provide both Army Reserve and ArmyNational Guard units with the ability to train using Army standard simulation tools the Battalion andBrigade Battlestaff Simulation System BBS the Corps Battle Simulation CBS the Janus Battle FocusTrainer and the Combat Service Support Training Simulation System CSSTSS Constructivesimulations will facilitate realistic large scale training for commanders battlestaffs and their units andsoldiers The USAR has also expanded its ability to support collective and staff training using theSPECTRUM a computer software program for battlestaff training constructive simulation system

The five Battle Projection Centers BPCs continue to use legacy constructive simulationsystems CBS BBS and CSSTSS The fielding of the Warfighters Simulation 2000 WARSIM 2000 tothe 78 th and 91 st Divisions Exercise is currently scheduled for FY 2002 The three other DivExs the75 th the 85 th and the 87 th are scheduled to receive WARSIM 2000 during FY 2003 Legacy simulationsare still required to provide training to the force WARSIM 2000 is fully fielded to the USAR DivExsContinued funding is necessary for continued functionality and development crosswalks and transitionrequirements This way the Army Reserve meet its mission to train the priority warfighting andsupporting commands of the Reserve Components in the field

Funding constraints limit Active Army Army National Guard and Army Reserve efforts toincrease the use to the extent desired of training devices simulations simulators and advanced trainingtechnologies to support individual and unit training These constraints impact the Reserve Componentsespecially hard due to the limited time available for units to train

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A9 httpwwwarmymil18 Summary tables of unit readiness shown for each State for Army National Guard units andfor each ARCOMGOCOM for the US Army Reserve units and drawn from the unit readinessrating system as required by section 1121 of ANGCRRA including the personnel readiness ratinginformation and the equipment readiness assessment information required by that sectiontogether with

A explanations of the information shown in the table Classified tables have beendeveloped by NGB and OCAR with a detailed narrative analysis of personnel and equipment readinesstrends indicated since implementation of the January 1994 revision to Army Regulation 2201 on UnitStatus Reporting They are currently maintained by the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff forOperations and Plans DAMOTR

B based on the information shown in the tables the Secretarys overall assessment of thedeployability of units of the Army National Guard and US Army Reserve including a discussionof personnel deficiencies and equipment shortfalls in accordance with such section 1121 Theclassified overall assessment of the deployability of ARNG combat units and FSP units of both ReserveComponents is currently maintained by the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and PlansDAMOTR

19 Summary tables shown for each State for units of the Army National Guard and for eachARCOMGOCOM for units of the US Army Reserve of the results of inspections of units of theArmy National Guard by inspectors general or other commissioned officers of the Regular Armyunder the provisions of section 105 of title 32 together with explanations of the information shownin the tables and including display of

A the number of such inspectionsB identification of the entity conducting each inspectionC the number of units inspected andD the overall results of such inspections including the inspectors determination for eachinspected unit of whether the unit met deployability standards and for those units not meetingdeployability standards the reasons for such failure and the status of corrective actions Forpurposes of this report data for Operational Readiness Evaluations will be provided on EnhancedBrigade and FSP units of the Army National Guard and for FSP units of the US Army ReserveTraining Assessment Model data will be provided to meet this reporting requirement for all other unitsof the Army National Guard and US Army Reserve Data on Army National Guard units will bereported by State and on US Army Reserve units by Army Reserve Command General OfficerCommandForces Command FORSCOM conducted 1957 inspections evaluations and assessments ofReserve Component RC Force Support Package FSP units during FY97 These included TrainingAssessment Model TAM assessments Operational Compliance Evaluations OCE formerlyOperational Readiness Evaluations ORE and Aviation Resource Management Surveys ARMS Thesewere conducted primarily by CONUSA installations and associated units The ARMS were conductedby FORSCOM ARMS teams The number of inspections evaluations and assessments of eSB and FSPunits in FY 98 exceeded FY 97 by 326 from 600 in FY 97

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A10 Army Posture Statement FY00a First US Army During FY 98 First US Army conducted a total of 1132 inspectionsevaluations and assessments of eSB and FSP units The number of inspections evaluations

and inspections conducted on eSB and FSP units increased 343 in FY 98 from 330 in FY 97Of the total evaluations 137 OCEs were conducted on company battery or detachment sizedeSB and FSP units Operational Compliance Evaluations conducted on eSB and FSP unitsincreased 274 in FY 98 from 50 OREs in FY 97

b Fifth US Army During FY 98 Fifth US Army conducted a total of 485 inspectionsevaluations and assessments of eSB and FSP units The number of inspections evaluations andinspections conducted on eSB and FSP units increased 179 in FY 98 from 270 in FY 97 Of the totalevaluations 94 OCEs were conducted on company battery or detachment sized eSB and FSP unitsOperational Compliance Evaluations conducted on eSB and FSP units increased 208 in FY 98 from 45OREs in FY 97

c Summary tables depicting CONUSA inspection numbers by state for the ARNG and by RegionalSupport Command for the USAR units are available in DCSOPS DAMOTR Results of FORSCOMARMS on RC units are also maintained there

20 A listing for each Army National Guard combat and FSP unit and the US Army ReserveFSP unit of the activeduty combat and other units associated with that Army National Guard andUS Army Reserve unit in accordance with section 1131a of ANGCRRA shown by State for theArmy National Guard and ARCOMGOCOM for the US Army Reserve and to be accompaniedfor each such National Guard and US Army Reserve unit by

A the assessment of the commander of that associated activeduty unit of the manpowerequipment and training resource requirements of that National Guard or US Army Reserve unitin accordance with section 1131b3 of ANGCRRA Completed assessments are maintained by theOffice of the Directorate of Operations G3 FORSCOM A summary of responses addressing eSB andFSP units are found below

andB the results of the validation by the commander of that associated activeduty unit of thecompatibility of that National Guard or US Army Reserve unit with active duty forces inaccordance with section 1131b4 of ANGCRRA Completed assessments are maintained by theOffice of the Directorate of Operations G3 FORSCOM A summary of responses addressing eSB andFSP units are found below

In April 1994 the Secretary of the Army designated the Army National Guard EnhancedSeparate Brigades as the principal Reserve Component maneuver forces of the Army Enhanced SeparateBrigade locations and Active Army training associations are shown below

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1 Enhanced Separate Brigades eSBInformation on the manpower equipment and training resource shortfalls for the eSB isannotated below The above chart shows the AC Training Associations for the eSB and ARNGDivisions The column that is identified as certifier means that the AC associated commander will havethe responsibility to conduct an assessment at the two and one year mark prior to a potential rotation by aCombat Training Center CTC by an eSB The results are then provided through command channels tothe Commander FORSCOM for review The decision on whether a brigade will continue in its programfor an NTC or JRTC rotation will be made by the state authority based on the value of the anticipatedtraining experience weighed against the cost of the rotation The 41st IN light and the 116th AR heavycompleted their CTC rotations NTC and JRTC respectively in Training Year 1998

a Manpower The majority of the eSB reported shortages in both junior and senior enlistedpersonnel 11B 11M 13B 13F 19K and officers Throughout the eSB Duty Military OccupationalSkill Qualification DMOSQ tends to be the major training challenge with many soldiers attendingDMOSQ schools instead of Annual Training

b Equipment Equipment on hand in some eSB have not kept up with the MTOE changesAcross the board the eSB are short ERCA communications equipment primarily SINCGARS radioswhich impacts on their ability to communication with their AC counterparts Shortages exist in chemicaldefense equipment especially chemical alarms Shortages in night vision devices limits the ability of theeSB to conduct night training One brigade is short HEMMTS and MICLICS and lacks dedicated signalsupport Additionally the engineers are short bridging equipment

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A12 Army Posture Statement FY00c Training Resource Shortfalls Funding constraints have limited units from sending soldiersto MOS producing schools such as 11M 13F 19F 19K 77F and 88M Reported shortfalls in schoolallocations particularly for master gunners and aviation specialties are harming professionaldevelopment and unit leader training programs Changes to MTOE and accompanying reclassificationand retraining in Air Defense Artillery and Military Intelligence skills exacerbate the situation withregard to training funding and school seats Extant shortfalls in Additional Flight Training PeriodsAFTP cut into the flying hour budget causing reduced aircraft availability which in turn impact aircrew proficiency Shortage of available ranges and adequate maneuver areas and distance to ranges andareas increases the cost of conducting training and hampers platoon and crew training readiness

d Compatibility Compatibility is limited due to lack of communications equipment especiallySINCGARS and MSE radios Incompatibility of automation equipment and lack of equipment at the unitlevel hampers connectivity and training After completion of the Aviation Restructuring Initiative oneair cavalry squadron is organized instead as an attack battalion thus reducing its ability to conductaviation reconnaissance operations Recent fielding of M1s and M3A2s has enhanced compatibility ofthe ARNG heavy brigades with the AC force

2 ARNG and USAR Force Support Package Unitsa ARNG and USAR FSP units are represented by the following branches or areas ofconcentration Chemical Combat Engineer Engineer Aviation Military Police Signal Corps AdjutantGeneral Logistics Maintenance Rear Tactical Operations Center Supply Corps Headquarters FinanceSupply Command Headquarters Public Affairs Medical Military History Military IntelligenceOrdnance Quartermaster and Transportation The ARNG had Air Defense Artillery Field Artillery andArmor units in addition to those types listed the USAR had Military Intelligence and Judge AdvocateGeneral units within their FSP units

b Information on the manpower equipment and training resource shortfalls for the FSP units isavailable in reports submitted by associated AC commanders These reports are maintained at DCSOPSDAMOTRO That information is also summarized below

1 Manpower Several FSP units have soldier shortages in the range of 812 percent Alsoa shortfall in DMOSQ soldiers affects a number of units The most predominant shortcoming is inMilitary Intelligence units in language skills

2 Equipment Some FSP units are short NBC equipment and some lack tacticalcommunications equipment especially SINCGARS A number of units are lacking ERCA equipmentwhich renders them nondeployable placing the burden of acquiring the equipment on the mobilizationstation If FSP units remain without essential equipment for extended periods of time it will seriouslydegrade their ability to perform their wartime mission without significant training and time atpostmobilization

3 Training Resources Several FSP units do not have an adequate training area by which toperform their mission essential task list training Some engineer air defense artillery and aviation FSPunits are reporting inadequate funding Others are having problems getting school seats ie for trainingengineer military intelligence language and quartermaster water specialities

4 Overall Comments on RC Force Compatibility with AC Force Communicationsequipment shortages particularly SINCGARs is having the greatest impact on compatibility As MTOE

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A13 httpwwwarmymilchanges and unit reorganizations continue to mature and coupled with distribution of equipment bypriority fill communications and automation compatibility between AC and RC units will progressivelyimprove

21 A specification of the activeduty personnel assigned to units of the Selected Reserve pursuantto section 414c of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993 10USC 261 note shown A by State for the Army National Guard and ARCOMGOCOM for theUS Army Reserve b by rank of officers warrant officers and enlisted members assigned andc by unit or other organizational entity of assignment The Total Army Personnel Commanddoes not maintain assignment data as specified above as active component personnel are not managed bystate or reserve component command

The Active ComponentReserve Component ACRC reorganization consisted of a threephaseprogram The first phase of this Congressionally mandated program was the Pilot Program whichassigned 2000 Active Duty personnel as fulltime advisors to selected Army National Guard and USArmy Reserve Units Personnel rotations for phase one took place in FY 94 and FY 95 Phase twofollowed enactment of Sec 1132 Title XI FY 93 National Defense Authorization Act This expandedthe dedicated Active Component AC support by 3000 active duty personnel bringing the total to 5000Congressionally mandated active duty personnel beginning in FY 95 The original target for 100fielding was 1 October 1997

During FY 96 and 97 FORSCOM conducted a Support to Organizational Training FunctionalArea Assessment SOT FAA Its mandate was to streamline command and control and reduce anyredundancy in unit missions and functions In March 1997 the Vice Chief of Staff Army approvedFORSCOMs plan to restructure the ACRC program resulting in over 1200 duty position and locationchanges

Beginning in FY 98 and continuing throughout FY 99 FORSCOM is executing the third phase ofthe ACRC restructuring program This restructure moved titled positions within the ACRC program tomeet force structure needs The new structure also created two dual component AC ARNG IntegratedDivision Headquarters at Fort Riley and Fort Carson which will each serve as the division headquarters tothree National Guard Enhanced Brigades Furthermore five tricomponent AC USAR ARNGTraining Support Division Headquarters were added to command and control the training of the ReserveComponent DA PERSCOM is now assigning against the future structure

The charts below depict the current enlisted and officer fill for titled positions based on thecurrent force structure mandated by TDA 3098 These charts show personnel fill for ACRC titledpositions by command and grade

The current reorganization will cause some soldiers to be assigned to unauthorized positions asthe ACRC force structure changes to meet the TDA 1000 requirement Where possible these personnelwill be reassigned to vacant Title XI positions in the new structure The remainder of these soldiers havebeen identified and placed on orders to move from the ACRC assignment to the mainstream Armybeginning May 1999 through September 1999

The Army is committed to providing enough personnel to fill titled positions to 100 As theArmy reaches the end of its threephased ACRC restructure process in October 1999 and the forcestabilizes fill for titled positions is projected to reach 100 by the end of 1st Quarter FY 00 Assignment to Title XI positions is included in the highest priority of fill in the Army

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A14 Army Posture Statement FY00120

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