Command, Control, Communications, Computers,
Intelligence, Surveillance, And Reconnaissance
"The goal of Army Operations will be
to simultaneously attack critical targets throughout the area
of opera- tions by rapid maneuver in multiple dimensions and precision
fires. ... Improvements in situational under- standing will facilitate
extremely rapid, noncontiguous decentralized operations."
Once fielded, the fully networked command,
control, communications, computer, intelligence, surveillance and
reconnaissance (C4ISR) capabilities of Future Combat Systems (FCS)
will enable the Army's larger, more powerful, flexible and more
rapidly deployable modern force to fight in an extremely rapid,
noncontiguous decentralized manner. Building upon lessons learned
and employing the most advanced technology available from the best
of industry, FCS will implement a highly progressive C4ISR architecture
that unites the many functions of battlespace command. Enabling
this advanced capability is the ongoing FCS development of battle
command systems, networked communications, sensors
and integrated computers. The system will offer a collaborative
information environment that will be rich in relevant intelligence
tailored to the needs of multiple echelons and soldiers' roles,
while seamlessly intertwining advanced technologies in a manner
transparent to the warfighter. It will use a performance-optimized
capacity to process data efficiently and provide a comprehensive
capacity to transfer information wherever it must go in the battlespace.
The C4ISR network will facilitate improved situational awareness,
real time sensor-to-shooter linkages, increased synergy between
echelons and within small units and greater flexibility in unit
of action (UA) command.
Today's warfighter has been introduced to numerous
technological advances which have been developed over recent years
to enhance command and control (C2). While there have been clear
benefits from each of these stand- alone systems, the inability
to efficiently integrate these individual solutions has frustrated
FCS will network and integrate the many Army
C2functions into one seamless system. Tasks like mission planning,
platform and soldier logistics management, battle- space analysis,
collaboration, fires and effects control and network management
will all be coupled. The C2 applications are being developed simultaneously,
enabling full interaction among the FCS-equipped units of action.
Therefore, as battlespace details change, the networked system will
propagate updates relevant for a given role or echelon to ensure
warfighters have the most current, pertinent information available.
The C2 capabilities will be common and integrated, and will achieve
the long-desired goal of an integrated and interoperable system
with no hardware, software or information stovepipes.
This transparent linking of information will
enable greater battlespace awareness at all echelons. Historically,
C2 was limited to battalion level and higher. FCS pushes the C2
ability down to the individual soldier level. This fundamental change
in capability will better enable the UA commander to progress from
a constrained C2methodology to a more fluid and agile mission command
style of leadership. The FCS family-of-systems will be connected
to the C4ISR network by a multilayered communications and computers
(CC) network with unprecedented range, capacity and dependability.
This network will provide secure, reliable access to information
sources over extended distances and complex terrain. The network
will support advanced functionalities, such as integrated network
management, information assurance and information dissemination
management, to ensure distribution of critical information among
sensors, processors and warfighters both within and external to
the FCS-equipped organization.
The CC network will not require a large and
separate infrastructure because it will be embedded in the mobile
platforms and move with the combat formations.
The FCS communication network will be composed
of several homogeneous communication systems such as joint tactical
radio system Clusters 1 and 5 with wideband network waveform and
soldier radio waveform, network data link and warfighter information
network-tactical. FCS will use all available resources to provide
a robust, survivable, scalable and reliable heterogeneous communications
network to seamlessly integrate ground, near-ground, airborne and
space-borne assets for constant connectivity and layered redundancy.
The FCS integrated computing system (ICS) will
provide an integrated common operating environment to manage processing,
security and local area network infrastructures for dynamic networks
on the move. This hardware will support battle command applications,
sensor processing, and communications, weapons and platform management
in a single computing environment. Its embedded security and safety
will assure a secure operating environment with certified firewall
and network intrusion protection. The commonality of the ICS across
FCS platforms will reduce life-cycle costs and size, weight and
power requirements significantly over designs currently in use.
Organic to FCS, a distributed and networked
array of multispectral intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance
(ISR) sensors will provide the UAwith the ability to see first.
The ISR assets within the UA, as well as those external to the UAand
at higher echelons, will provide for timely and accurate situational
awareness (SA), enhanced survivability, precision networked fires
and continuously maintained contact throughout engagement. FCS will
process real time ISR data, blue force identification and SA data
to update a common operating picture containing in- formation on
friendly forces, battlespace objects (BSOs), BSO groupings and their
associated intent, threat potential and vulnerabilities.
In the past, sensors were optimized for individual
platforms; situational awareness was conducted at the platform level
but it was not shared with those beyond the platform. The power
of FCS will lie in the network and its ability to increase warfighters'
situational understanding so that they can see what's happening
anywhere on the battlefield. In addition, the network will have
the capability to heal itself. If one sensor goes down, warfighters
will be able to rely on another sensor's data to perform missions.
Tapping into powerful technology such as multifunction
radar, electro-optical, infrared, acoustic, radio frequency, millimeter
wave, laser, magnetic, chemical-biological and others, the new sensors
will protect the Army's warfighters and put unparalleled resources
in their hands.
With FCS, the Army will acquire 21st-century
technology for the 21st-century warfighter. With this singular networked
system of sensors, communications, battle command and computational
power, soldiers will be able to see first, understand first, act
first and finish decisively.
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