Chapter 1:
The Army and the Profession of Arms

The Army in American History
A Historic Challenge
The American Profession of Arms
The Army in the Profession of Arms

…[Y]ou may fly over a land forever; you may bomb it, atomize it, pulverize it and wipe it clean of life—but if you desire to defend it, protect it, and keep it for civilization, you must do this on the ground, the way the Roman legions did, by putting your young men into the mud.

T.R. Fehrenbach This Kind of War

1-1. First and foremost, the Army is Soldiers. No matter how much the tools of warfare improve, it is Soldiers who use them to accomplish their mission. Soldiers committed to selfless service to the Nation are the centerpiece of Army organizations. Everything the Army does for the Nation is done by Soldiers supported by Army civilians and family members. Only with quality Soldiers answering the noble call to serve freedom can the Army ensure the victories required on battlefields of today and the future.

1-2. The Army, a long-trusted institution, exists to serve the Nation. As part of the joint force, the Army supports and defends America’s Constitution and way of life against all enemies, foreign and domestic. The Army protects national security interests, including, forces, possessions, citizens, allies, and friends. It prepares for and delivers decisive action in all operations. Above all, the Army provides combatant commanders with versatile land forces ready to fight and win the Nation’s wars.

1-3. The Army’s contribution to joint operations is landpower. Landpower is the ability—by threat, force, or occupation—to promptly gain, sustain, and exploit control over land, resources, and people. Landpower includes the ability to—

1-4. While the Army is an integral part of the joint force, the value of its contribution depends on its ability to exercise landpower. Ultimately, Army forces’ ability to control land, resources, and people through a sustained presence makes permanent the advantages gained by joint forces.

1-5. At the dawn of the twentieth century, Secretary of War Elihu Root wrote, “The real object of having an Army is to provide for war.” He continued, “The regular [military] establishment in the United States will probably never be by itself the whole machine with which any war will be fought.” But Root also knew that the Army does more than fight wars. Even as he wrote, Army forces were establishing civil governments in recently acquired territories in Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Cuba. After fighting the war with Spain, the Army had reduced its strength. However, it was recruiting Soldiers for counterinsurgency operations in the Philippines. Now, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, Secretary Root’s observation remains true. The Army—Regular Army and Reserve Components—continues to provide forces relevant to mission requirements. The Soldiers and Army civilians of these forces are ready for employment on short notice and able to conduct sustained operations when required.

1-6. Army forces provide combatant commanders the means to deter potential adversaries and shape the strategic environment. Fundamental to deterrence is the credible, demonstrated capability to fight and win in all land environments. Several factors underlie the credibility and capability that make Army forces relevant in any environment. Tough, disciplined Soldiers and imaginative, adaptive leadership are essential components. Rigorous and realistic training, sound doctrine, and modern equipment also contribute. The design and practices of Army institutional structures provide essential support. These same characteristics make Army forces important to establishing relationships with potential multinational partners. The versatile mix of Army organizations provides combatant commanders with the landpower necessary to achieve objectives across the range of military operations.

1-7. Army forces are ready—well led, well trained, and well equipped. They are prepared to deploy immediately anywhere in the world. Army forces can manage crises. They are ready to conduct prompt force projection and sustained land operations. When deterrence fails or disaster strikes, they can lead or support the unified action required to resolve a situation.

1-8. Army forces are versatile. In addition to conducting combat operations, Army forces help provide security. They supply many services associated with establishing order, rebuilding infrastructure, and delivering humanitarian support. When necessary, they can direct assistance in reestablishing governmental institutions. Army forces help set the conditions that allow a return to normalcy or a self-sustaining peace.


1-9. The Army traces its heritage to the colonial militias. These were precursors of today’s Army National Guard. Citizens answering the call to protect their homes and families began a heritage of selfless service and sacrifice that continues today. Opposition to British colonial policies in the eighteenth century led to war in 1775. After the battles at Lexington and Concord, militia forces from across New England surrounded British forces in Boston. The Continental Congress assumed command of these units as “Troops of the United Provinces of North America” on 14 June 1775.

This date is taken as the Army’s birthday. The next day, Congress gave command of all “Continental forces” to George Washington. Washington’s forces were the first American military organizations responsible to an authority other than that of the individual colonies or the British Crown. Born in this quest for freedom, the Army has served the Nation in peace and war for over 230 years.

1-10. On 1 January 1776, the national force authorized by Congress came into existence. It was described by Washington in his first general order of the new year as “the new army, which, in every point of View is entirely Continental.” The name stuck, and the national forces became known as the Continentals. The Continentals drew strength from strong leadership and selfless patriotism despite shortages of supplies and equipment. Their early hardships and the crucible of Valley Forge molded them into the Army that, with the state militias, kept the spirit of patriotism alive until the long war for independence could be won.

1-11. Thus, from the start, the Army comprised a small national force and the state militias’ citizen-Soldiers. In times of emergency, the standing army was enlarged with recruits and augmented by mobilizing the militia and creating volunteer units, initially by state and nationally by the time of the Civil War. This tradition of an Army that combines “full-time” regular Soldiers and citizen-Soldiers serving for short activeservice periods is still the cornerstone of Army organization.

1-12. In 1781, with the support of French land and naval forces, the Continental Army defeated the British at Yorktown. This victory secured for the Nation the ideals so eloquently stated in the Declaration of Independence:

WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness…

1-13. Sustained by the selfless service of patriots, the Army continues to protect these same unalienable rights today. Thus, the most meaningful lines of the Declaration of Independence with respect to the Army may not be the first, but the last:

And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm Reliance on the Protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

1-14. This sentence reflects the ideals of American civil society and its military. Since it was written, the Army has provided Americans the means to pledge their lives, fortunes, and honor to a noble, selfless cause. Today’s young men and women are continuing the Army’s vigilant, dedicated, and selfless service to the American people. They are honoring the bond and sacred trust the Army bears as the servant of the Nation. The commitment of today’s Soldiers sustains freedom and inspires the next generation to answer the call to duty.


Washington at Newburgh
Establishing the Role of the Military in a Democracy

Following victory at Yorktown in 1781, the Continental Army moved into quarters near Newburgh, New York, to await peace. The national situation was grim. The Continental Congress could not raise the funds to provide pay or pensions to the Soldiers, some of whom had not been paid for several years. Many officers feared that Congress would disband the Army and renege on its promises. By the winter of 1782–83, tension had reached a dangerous level. The future of the Republic was in doubt.

A group of officers determined to use the threat of military action to compel Congress to settle its debts. They attempted to enlist their commander, General George Washington, to lead the plot. He refused every appeal, and the rebellious officers prepared to act without him. On 15 March 1783, Washington entered an officers assembly and warned them of the grave danger inherent in their scheme. He was having little effect until he took a pair of spectacles from his pocket to read.

The officers were astonished. None of them had seen their hero in his eyeglasses. Washington seemed to age before them. But an offhand comment demonstrated the depth of character that had sustained a revolution: “Gentlemen, you will permit me to put on my spectacles, for I have not only grown gray, but almost blind, in the service of my country.” The act, the statement, and the power of a leader’s example quelled an incipient rebellion.

Washington’s selfless leadership and willing subordination instituted the tradition of civilian control of the military—a fundamental tenet of the American military profession.


1-15. The American tradition of subordinating the military to civilian authority dates from the end of the Revolutionary War. This tradition began with a threat to liberty at Newburgh, New York, in 1781. As described in the vignette on page 1-4, a group of Continental Army officers were plotting to compel the Continental Congress to settle debts owed to Soldiers with the threat of force. George Washington took a strong stand against the conspirators and quelled what could have become a military rebellion. His actions stand as an example of the selfless service and willing subordination to civilian authority the Nation expects of American military professionals today.

1-16. After the Revolutionary War, the government reduced the Army to fewer than 100 Soldiers. This action began a recurring pattern of small peacetime forces followed by wartime expansion. This reduction was based on both a distrust of large standing forces and a belief that the Atlantic Ocean would protect the Nation from major foreign threats. Significant federal forces were reconstituted only in response to emergencies, usually to protect citizens on the frontier. The Army did expand significantly to fight the British in the War of 1812. This war was fought primarily with the standing Army, augmented by militia and volunteers. It solidified the Army’s reputation of service to the Nation. Although it was again reduced in size after the war, the Army was never again reduced to the extent that it was after the Revolutionary War.

1-17. From the beginning, the Army made major contributions to America’s growth. As the Nation expanded westward, Army explorers mapped new territories and extended the frontier. Army engineers built roads and canals and improved navigation on waterways. Army forces kept watch over the frontier, enforcing law and order and providing the security necessary for the Nation’s expansion. In 1846, the Army expanded to fight the Mexican War. Afterwards, it again was reduced to a small standing force.

1-18. In the 1860s, the Army and the Nation experienced their most trying period, when both were torn apart by the Civil War. The Army grew dramatically—in size, capability, and technological sophistication—during the four long years of war. Afterwards, the Army was charged with reconstructing the South. Simultaneously, it resumed responsibility for maintaining security on the frontier.

1-19. Changes in military thought and technology accelerated in the second half of the nineteenth century. The hard-won lessons of the Civil War and examples from European wars demonstrated the need to codify a body of professional knowledge and train leaders to apply it. Army leaders, like General William Tecumseh Sherman, acted to meet this need. In 1882, the Army established the School of Application for Cavalry and Infantry at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. In time, this school became the foundation of the Army’s professional education system. Its founding was key to the Army’s development as a profession between 1870 and 1910.

1-20. The Spanish-American War of 1898 exposed Army leadership, organizational, logistic, and training deficiencies. The Army overcame these and defeated Spanish forces at opposite ends of the globe. Afterwards, it struggled to assimilate many technological changes. It also became an expeditionary force for a growing world power. Army forces assumed responsibility for governing the new possessions of Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Cuba. They continued to protect the border with Mexico as well.

1-21. The Spanish-American War and Philippine Insurrection showed the need for a federal reserve force. This force was created in 1908 and eventually became the Organized Reserve. It was the predecessor of the Army Reserve. The Organized Reserve provided a formal peacetime structure for volunteers. It produced a pool of reserve officers and enlisted Soldiers with medical and other skills.

1-22. The early twentieth century found the Nation and the Army involved in the first of two world wars. These wars transformed them both. A greatly and hastily expanded U.S. Army assured the Allied victory in World War I. The American Expeditionary Forces first saw action at Cantigny. Important victories at Soissons, St. Mihiel, and the Meuse-Argonne followed. The action of the 369th Infantry Regiment described on page 1-7 provides one example of the contributions of the American Expeditionary Forces. These and other victories helped turn the tide on the Western Front and defeat the Central Powers. The Nation had raised, trained, and equipped almost three million Soldiers and deployed them overseas in 18 months.

1-23. World War I also saw developments in land operations that began the evolution to the joint operations of today. Different Army branches were integrated into combined arms operations on a larger scale than ever before. The use of military aircraft led to the awareness of the potential of airpower. Military leaders began to recognize that landpower, airpower, and sea power are interrelated. Large Marine forces served under Army command and Army forces served under Marine commanders for the first time. As important, the Army, under Generals John J. Pershing and Peyton March, learned to mobilize, train, and project power across the Atlantic Ocean. The Regular Army revised its relationship with the Army National Guard as part of that effort. In addition, members of the Organized Reserve were mobilized to provide the many skills needed to sustain a large twentieth-century Army.

1-24. A generation later, World War II challenged the Army to again project landpower across the Atlantic Ocean—and the Pacific as well. The United States recognized an unofficial state of national emergency after the fall of France in June 1940. The National Guard was mobilized and a peacetime draft initiated. All members of the Organized Reserve were called to active duty. To take advantage of technological advances, the Army changed the structure of its organizations, fielding such specialized units as armored divisions, airborne divisions, and special operations forces. To defeat the Axis powers, combat organizations were deployed to North Africa, Europe, Asia, and the Pacific.

1-25. The Army had been greatly reduced during the lean years between the wars. The Great Depression limited available money, equipment, and Soldiers. However, the Army used that time and its education system to develop leaders. This brilliant generation of Army leaders included such generals as Marshall, MacArthur, Arnold, Eisenhower, Bradley, and Patton. These leaders were able to mobilize, train, and equip a force that grew to 89 divisions by 1945. Organized Reserve officers formed the leadership cadre for most of these divisions.


Meuse-Argonne, 26 September–1 October 1918

The 369th Infantry fought valiantly in the Meuse-Argonne as part of the French 161st Division. Attacking behind a fiery barrage, the 369th Infantry assaulted successive German trench lines and captured the town of Ripont. On 29 September, the regiment stormed powerful enemy positions and took the town of Sechault. Despite heavy casualties, the 369th, called “Hell Fighters” by the French and Germans, relentlessly continued the attack at dawn. Raked by enemy machine guns, they assaulted in the woods northeast of Sechault, flanking and overwhelming enemy machine gun positions. The “Let’s Go!” elan and indomitable fighting spirit of the 369th Infantry was illustrated throughout the battle. Their initiative, leadership, and gallantry won for their entire regiment the French Croix de Guerre.


1-26. Twice in 25 years, America’s regulars and citizen-Soldiers had answered the call to duty. During World War II, the Army’s ranks swelled to meet unprecedented challenges of global magnitude. It formed a decisive force that helped sustain freedom and democracy throughout the world. The sacrifices of millions of American Soldiers of two generations helped establish the United States as a global power. At the end of World War II, Army forces were stationed around the world. They were governing occupied countries, assisting in reconstruction programs, and securing new borders against new foes.

1-27. World War II did not end the threat to freedom. The Soviet Union also emerged from the war as a global power, and the Chinese Communists drove the Nationalists from the Chinese mainland in 1949. These developments resulted in a continuing state of tension that persisted for five decades. Army forces were involved in worldwide commitments. For the first time, Americans accepted the need to maintain a large standing army in peacetime. However, the belief that strategic nuclear weapons would prove decisive in future conflict led to resource scarcity for the Army until the 1960s.

1-28. Even so, the strategic environment was also dangerous from a conventional perspective. Between 1950 and 1989, Army forces served in many small but important actions. These included an intervention in the Dominican Republic in 1965 and combat operations in Grenada in 1983. The Multinational Force and Observers mission in the Sinai began in 1982. The major conflicts of this period, in Korea and Vietnam, were limited in terms of objectives and scope to prevent escalation into nuclear warfare. Limited in scope did not mean that either of these conflicts were “small wars.” Both involved Army forces in large-scale conventional operations.

1-29. Operations in Vietnam entailed significant counterinsurgency operations as well. Soldiers fought with honor, many times overcoming great odds to prevail. This protracted conflict sorely challenged the Army. However, the lessons learned served as a catalyst to revitalize it. Following this conflict, the Army launched key initiatives to create the all-volunteer force; refocus doctrine, training, and leader development; and modernize its equipment.

1-30. The 1970s and 1980s were a challenging time of rebuilding. The Army’s focus returned to fighting a large-scale conventional war in Europe. However, budgets for military spending remained tight until the 1980s. Then the Army began modernizing its equipment with such systems as the Abrams tank and Bradley fighting vehicle. Army doctrine was refined as well. Ground tactics that had not changed much since the mid-1950s gave way to the Active Defense and then to AirLand Battle. In addition, innovations in both individual and collective training brought Soldiers and their leaders to a proficiency seldom seen in any army. These Soldiers, trained and ready, secured the frontiers of freedom in Korea and central Europe.

1-31. The Cold War ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. The dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, collapse of the Soviet Union, and reunification of Germany brought changes for the military. The United States faced a strategic environment containing no peer competitor. There was no clear-cut threat against which to prepare a defense. The strategic environment was increasingly volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous. The Army had to prepare to deter unknown adversaries, defeat ill-defined enemies, and control unfamiliar situations. Instead of focusing on prevailing in major combat operations, the Army was required to balance its capabilities. However, the desire for a “peace dividend” again resulted in smaller Army budgets during the 1990s.

1-32. The last decade of the twentieth century found Army forces reassuring partners and deterring aggression in critical regions. In December 1989, Army forces intervened to establish a U.S.-recognized government in Panama. After the intervention, Army Reserve civil affairs and military police units remained to restore order. In 1991, Army forces ejected the Iraqi Army from Kuwait in an unprecedented 100-hour ground offensive that followed an equally unprecedented joint air offensive. This operation occurred during the post-Cold War force reduction. It required mobilizing many National Guard and Army Reserve units. To ensure regional stability and bolster respect for human rights, Army forces participated in several North Atlantic Treaty Organization and United Nations peacekeeping operations. These included missions in Somalia, Haiti, and the Balkans.

1-33. The twenty-first century brought new threats to the United States. These took the form of ideologies and networks hostile to the American way of life. Today finds Army forces committed worldwide in the War on Terrorism. After the attacks of 11 September 2001, Army forces contributed to successful major combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. These operations removed two repressive regimes. In Afghanistan, Army and joint forces carried the fight to the sponsors and organizers of the 11 September attacks. In both countries, Army forces' sustained operations established the conditions for unprecedented national elections. The Army continues to contribute most of the forces for the stability and reconstruction operations in these two countries. Today, Army forces are acting in a new strategic environment, one in which the Nation is waging a complex, protracted conflict. In this environment, peace is the exception; combat and extended operations are routine.

1-34. Throughout its history, the Army has demonstrated respect for enduring principles and institutional characteristics in its service to the Nation. Among the first are the primacy of the Constitution, the rule of law, and military subordination to civilian authority. Among the second are maintaining the ability to mobilize rapidly to support the Nation's interests, integrating new technology, and quickly adapting to and learning to win in changing environments and circumstances. The Army's rich history inspires today's Soldiers as members of a proud and noble profession. It links this generation of Soldiers to those of past generations who answered the call to duty.


The Army used to have all the time in the world and no money; now we’ve got all the money and no time.

General George C. Marshall

1-35. Besides evoking inspiration and ancestral linkage, history also bears lessons. In the immediate aftermath of the Cold War, there was a widespread and apparently reasonable expectation of a “peace dividend.” There also appeared to be time for the Army to methodically transform the force. The “new world order” was supposed to be one of fewer conflicts. Threats to the United States were expected to decrease. These assumptions affected defense planning and budgeting. Both the size and readiness of the Army decreased.

1-36. The attacks of 11 September 2001 exposed the realities of the current security environment. The United States is now engaged in a protracted global war against enemies fighting with unconventional means. The more extreme of them value human life differently and reject any accommodation. These realities make clear that, to ultimately succeed in the War on Terrorism, the Army must rebalance its capabilities and capacities. The Army is using this strategic opportunity to transform itself. It is undergoing its most profound restructuring in more than 50 years. Combat capabilities and capacities designed to defeat a peer competitor are being converted to those better able to sustain protracted operations across the range of military operations. At the same time, the Army is applying increased resources to meet the needs of combatant commanders today and posturing itself for tomorrow's challenges.

1-37. This is not the first time the Army has made such a force correction. Throughout its history, increases in size and modernization efforts to meet national challenges have been followed by decreases in strength and resources after the crisis. For example, after World War I, the Army received barely enough resources to experiment with new technologies, let alone integrate them into the force. Thus, the eve of World War II found the Army in a race against time as it created a mechanized force and built the combat organizations needed to defeat peer competitors on opposite ends of the globe.

1-38. Today the Army finds itself in a similar situation. The threat is here and now, and it is global in scope. This time, however, the Army is making the best use of existing Army capabilities while expanding capacities where needed. World War II required a large Army to match the capacities of peer competitors. The War on Terrorism requires an Army with diverse capabilities to meet a different kind of adversary. The Army is rapidly rebalancing its capabilities and capacities to effectively meet this challenge.

1-39. But there is a significant difference between the challenges before World War II and those of today. During World War II, the homeland was safe from major attacks. While there was a threat of sabotage, the Axis powers could neither project a major force to North America nor strike it from the air. Today's security environment is different. Weapons of mass destruction and those able to produce catastrophic effects are small enough to smuggle into the homeland. America's adversaries are actively seeking those weapons. The United States must find and defeat those adversaries before they procure and use them. A second difference is the nature of the adversary. America's adversaries during World War II were nation states. Their sources of power could be located and destroyed. Once this was accomplished, the war ended. Today's enemies include nonstate organizations. Their members and power sources are hard to find and defeat. New enemies may appear with little warning. This situation makes it impossible to determine when the War on Terrorism will end. It places a premium on operational flexibility and adaptability-attributes of Army forces with balanced capabilities. It requires Army forces to sustain a consistently high readiness level. There will be no time to "ramp up" to meet a crisis. Maintaining this readiness level while fighting the War on Terrorism requires a long-term commitment-of both resources and will-by the Nation as well as the Army. These differences form the basis of today's challenge.


1-40. The purpose of any profession is to serve society by effectively delivering a necessary and useful specialized service. To fulfill those societal needs, professions- such as, medicine, law, the clergy, and the military-develop and maintain distinct bodies of specialized knowledge and impart expertise through formal, theoretical, and practical education. Each profession establishes a unique subculture that distinguishes practitioners from the society they serve while supporting and enhancing that society. Professions create their own standards of performance and codes of ethics to maintain their effectiveness. To that end, they develop particular vocabularies, establish journals, and sometimes adopt distinct forms of dress. In exchange for holding their membership to high technical and ethical standards, society grants professionals a great deal of autonomy. However, the profession of arms is different from other professions, both as an institution and with respect to its individual members.

1-41. Institutionally, the consequences of failure in the profession of arms-for both individual members of the Armed Forces and the Nation-are more dire than those in any other. Most professions serve individual clients. The military serves a collective client, the Nation. Its actions impact broadly in extent and consequences: the recovery of a community devastated by natural disaster, the defeat of enemy forces, or the security of the Nation. Therefore, failure of the military profession would have catastrophic consequences. American military professionals work, study, and train throughout their careers to ensure the military profession will not fail in the call to duty.

1-42. Individual members of the profession of arms are distinguished from those of other professions by the "unlimited liability" they assume in their oaths of office. While members of some professions engage in dangerous tasks daily, only members of the Armed Forces can be ordered to place their lives in peril anywhere at any time. The obligations they undertake, risking life and well-being for the greater good, are in many ways extraordinary.

1-43. The profession of arms is global. Most nations maintain armies. American Soldiers consider soldiers of most other nations to be peers. They consider each other members of a community born of similar experiences, military cultures, and values. However, the American profession of arms is distinguished in three ways:

1-44. Members of the American military profession swear to support and defend a document, the Constitution of the United States-not a leader, people, government, or territory. That solemn oath ties military service directly to the founding document of the Nation. It instills a nobility of purpose within each member of the Armed Forces and provides deep personal meaning to all who serve. The profession holds common standards and a code of ethics derived from common moral obligations undertaken in its members' oaths of office. These unite members of all the Services in their common purpose: defending the Constitution and protecting the Nation's interests, at home and abroad, against all threats.

1-45. All branches of government contribute to providing for the common defense. Under the Constitution, Congress, representing the people, has authority "to raise and support Armies.[and] To provide and maintain a Navy." Congress also makes statutes applicable to the land and naval forces and appropriates funds for their missions. The Constitution designates the President as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. Once the Congress has approved the use of force, the President directs that use. The judicial branch interprets laws passed by Congress as they apply to the Armed Forces and the authority of the President as Commander in Chief. Thus, the military is responsible to the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the government in their separate functions.

1-46. A final aspect that distinguishes the American profession of arms is the professionalism of its officers and noncommissioned officers. Both are given considerable authority early in their careers. Both are expected to exercise initiative to identify and resolve unforeseen circumstances. Both are developed through a series of schools that equips them for greater responsibilities as they are promoted. This combination of professional development and experience in making decisions within general guidelines rather than rigid rules develops flexible and self-aware leaders. It has resulted in an agile institution able to conduct decentralized operations and obtain extraordinary results. The accompanying vignette contains one example of this kind of military professional, Sergeant First Class Paul R. Smith.

1-47. In the past two decades, the American military has advanced technologically at an unprecedented rate. More importantly, it has integrated technology into combined arms and joint operations beyond the militaries of most other nations. The identity of the American profession of arms is joint in nature and essence. It encompasses specialized knowledge of land, maritime, aerospace, and special operations that it applies through unified action.

1-48. The American profession of arms has three dimensions: physical, intellectual, and moral.

1-49. The profession of arms is physical because warfare is physical. The joint force applies violent measures to destroy assets and personnel essential to adversaries' interests. The physical dimension includes deploying forces over vast distances and moving them through complex environments. Doing this requires considerable energy. Doing it well without adverse unintended consequences requires considerable skill and training. Extraordinary physical strength is necessary to endure the violence and friction attendant to military operations.

1-50. The profession of arms is intellectual because the body of expertise required to employ joint forces in military operations is extensive and detailed. From the strategic perspective, this expertise is exercised in concert with the other instruments of national power: diplomatic, informational, and economic. From the operational and tactical perspectives, military professionals exercise their expertise against intelligent adversaries actively seeking to defeat them in life-and-death situations.

1-51. The intellectual dimension also encompasses two cultural aspects of the profession. The first is internal: it pertains to knowledge of the military's values-based culture (addressed in the next section). The second is external: it pertains to the need to adapt to varying environments with different cultural and political values. Military professionals must be culturally aware-sensitive to differences and the implications those differences have on the operational environment.


Professionalism in Combat-Beyond the Call of Duty

His Soldiers considered Sergeant First Class Paul R. Smith a strict disciplinarian and tough trainer. Smith's experiences during the Persian Gulf War of 1991 impressed on him the importance of strong leadership and training to standard. As a platoon sergeant, he lived that conviction, training his platoon tirelessly. When deployed to Kuwait before Operation Iraqi Freedom, Smith vowed to do all it took to bring his Soldiers home.

On 4 April 2003, near the Baghdad airport, Smith’s combat engineer unit was attacked by a company-sized enemy force. Realizing the threat to his unit, Smith personally engaged the enemy with hand grenades and antitank weapons. Then he organized the evacuation of three wounded Soldiers from a damaged armored personnel carrier. Concerned that the enemy would overrun their defenses, Smith moved under withering fire to a .50 caliber machine gun mounted on the damaged vehicle. With total disregard for himself, he engaged the attackers from an exposed position, ordering the Soldier feeding ammunition to his weapon to stay down. After firing over three cans of ammunition, Smith was mortally wounded. However, his courageous actions helped repel the enemy attack, resulting in as many as 50 enemy killed and the safe withdrawal of many wounded Soldiers.

The only casualty from his platoon that day was Sergeant First Class Smith. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for his selfless, courageous action. Many Soldiers of his platoon, "his boys," believe they returned home because of their platoon sergeant's unceasing efforts to prepare them for combat and his selfless service above and beyond the call of duty on 4 April 2003.


1-52. The moral dimension of the profession of arms lies in the fact that war is ultimately fought for ideas. Ideas motivate combatants. It is only in the moral dimension- when opponents understand and believe that they are defeated-that victory is complete. While the use of force is sometimes necessary for the common good, the authority to wield it carries a moral responsibility of the greatest magnitude. The morality of applying force in a just cause derives from ancient ethical and religious standards. The moral and ethical tenets of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence form the basis of the military's professional ideals. The Law of Land Warfare, Uniform Code of Military Justice, and Code of Conduct give structure to its moral standards.

1-53. Included in the moral dimension is civilian control of the military. The Armed Forces do not wage war in their own name or under their own authority. Under the Constitution, the decision to use military force belongs to the American people (acting through Congress) and the President (acting under their authority). Once the Nation, through its elected representatives, decides to authorize military action, it relies on the professionalism of its military leaders to ensure the judicious application of violence.

1-54. Doing the right thing for the right reason and with the right intention is always challenging. But this challenge is even more difficult during the fast-moving, ambiguous, and deadly chaos of combat. It is only slightly less so under the stressful conditions of providing humanitarian assistance. Military leaders are responsible for ensuring proper moral and ethical conduct of their Soldiers. They influence character development and foster correct actions through role-modeling, teaching, and coaching. Besides influencing moral behavior, the moral realm for military leaders includes maintaining popular support, cooperation among multinational partners, and Soldiers' loyalty.

1-55. The imperative to master these dimensions of the profession of arms is the basis of the physical, intellectual, and moral aspects of professional military education and leader development. Military leaders continuously cultivate expertise in their Service's capabilities. Through study and practice, they seek to better understand how to integrate that knowledge into joint operations. They strive to be expert practitioners of the art and science of warfare. Military professionals personally commit to a career-long process of learning, teaching, evaluating, and adapting. They are constantly mastering changing security environments, technologies, and military techniques.


1-56. The Army profession is nested within the American profession of arms. The larger profession comprises the professions of the individual Services: the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard. The value of the Army's contribution depends on its ability to dominate its operational sphere-the conduct of prompt and sustained operations on land. The Army organizes its forces and educates and trains its leaders to apply landpower. Army leaders maintain and advance the body of knowledge that guides land operations. This specialized knowledge contributes to further developing a comprehensive knowledge of joint operations. The Army's culture expresses its traditions and history, norms of conduct, and guiding values and standards. These have evolved over two centuries of operations in peace and war, of shared hardships and triumphs.


1-57. The Army's culture has its roots in its traditions and history. The Army cherishes its past and nourishes its institutional memory through ceremonies and traditions. Its organizations preserve their unit histories and display them in unit distinctive insignia ("crests"), patches, and mottos. Such traditions reinforce morale and the distinctiveness of the Army's contributions within the profession of arms. The Army's rich and honorable history of service to the Nation reminds Soldiers of who they are, the cause they serve, and their ties to those who have gone before them.


1-58. The Army's culture promotes certain norms of conduct. For example, discipline is central to its professional identity. Soldiers, who manage violence under the stress and ambiguity of combat, require the highest level of individual and organizational discipline. Likewise, because Soldiers must face the violence of combat, they require the stiffening of discipline to help them do their duty. General George S. Patton Jr. summarized the need for discipline as follows:

Discipline is based on pride in the profession of arms, on meticulous attention to details, and on mutual respect and confidence. Discipline must be a habit so engrained that it is stronger than the excitement of battle or the fear of death.

1-59. Army norms of conduct also demand adherence to the laws, treaties, and conventions governing the conduct of war to which the United States is a party. The law of war seeks both to legitimatize and limit the use of military force and prevent employing violence unnecessarily or inhumanely. For Soldiers, this is more than a legal rule; it is an American value. For Americans, each individual has worth. Each is a person endowed with unalienable rights.


1-60. The Army is a values-based organization. It upholds principles that are grounded in the Constitution and inspire guiding values and standards for its members. These principles are best expressed by the Army Values, Soldier's Creed, and Warrior Ethos. (See figure 1-1, page iv, and figure 1-2, page 16.) Derived from the obligations of the oaths of office, they express the professional competence required of Soldiers and affirm long-standing values within the Army's culture.

1-61. The Army Values are the basic building blocks of a Soldier's character. They help Soldiers judge what is right or wrong in any situation. The Army Values form the very identity of the Army, the solid rock on which everything else stands, especially in combat. They are the glue that binds together the members of a noble profession.

Figure 1-2. The Army Values

1-62. The Soldier's Creed captures the spirit of being a Soldier and the dedication Soldiers feel to something greater than themselves. It outlines the fundamental obligations of Soldiers to their fellow Soldiers, their unit, and the Army itself. In fact, the Soldier's Creed extends beyond service as a Soldier; it includes commitment to family and society. It begins with an affirmation of who Soldiers are and what they do:

I am an American Soldier. I am a Warrior and a member of a team. I serve the people of the United States and live the Army Values.

Embedded in the Soldier's Creed is the Warrior Ethos-the very essence of what it means to be a Soldier:

1-63. The Warrior Ethos describes the frame of mind of the professional Soldier. It proclaims the selfless commitment to the Nation, mission, unit, and fellow Soldiers that all Soldiers espouse. When internalized, it produces the will to win. The accompanying vignette portrays the actions of two Soldiers that epitomize the Warrior Ethos.


Warrior Ethos-"I Will Never Leave a Fallen Comrade."

During a raid in Mogadishu in October 1993, Master Sergeant Gary Gordon and Sergeant First Class Randall Shughart, leader and member of a sniper team with Task Force Ranger in Somalia, were providing precision and suppressive fires from helicopters above two helicopter crash sites. Learning that no ground forces were available to rescue one of the downed aircrews and aware that a growing number of enemy were closing in on the site, Gordon and Shughart volunteered to be inserted to protect their critically wounded comrades. Their initial request was turned down because of the danger of the situation. They asked a second time; permission was denied. Only after their third request were they inserted. Gordon and Shughart were inserted one hundred meters south of the downed chopper. Armed with only their personal weapons, the two noncommissioned officers fought their way to the downed fliers through intense small arms fire, a maze of shanties and shacks, and the enemy converging on the site. After Gordon and Shughart pulled the wounded from the wreckage, they established a perimeter, put themselves in the most dangerous position, and fought off a series of attacks. The two warriors continued to protect their comrades until they had depleted their ammunition and were themselves fatally wounded. Their actions saved the life of an Army pilot.


1-64. At its core, the Warrior Ethos is the refusal to accept failure and instead overcome all obstacles with honor. The Warrior Ethos moves Soldiers to fight through all conditions to victory, no matter how long it takes and how much effort is required. Army leaders develop and sustain it through discipline, realistic training, commitment to the Army Values, and pride in the Army's heritage.

1-65. The Army Values, Soldier's Creed, and Warrior Ethos are mutually dependent. A Soldier cannot follow one while ignoring the others. Together they guide the personal conduct of every Soldier. They place requirements on individual Soldiers beyond those necessary in civil professions. By taking an oath to defend the Constitution, Soldiers accept a set of responsibilities that other citizens do not. For example, Soldiers agree to limit their freedom to come and go in order to be available on short notice as readiness demands. Soldiers also subordinate certain freedoms of expression to the needs of security and disciplined organizations.

1-66. Soldiers show their commitment to the Army's guiding values and standards by willingly performing their duty at all times and subordinating their personal welfare to that of others without expecting reward or recognition. Conversely, the Army is committed to developing values-based leadership and seeing to the well-being of Soldiers and their families. Soldiers with patriotism, pride in their profession, commitment to the Army and its values, and belief in the essential purposes of the military provide the inner strength of cohesive units. They enable the Army to attain its service ideal. Developing these attributes is a major goal of Army leadership.


The American soldier is a proud one and he demands professional competence in his leaders. In battle, he wants to know that the job is going to be done right, with no unnecessary casualties. The noncommissioned officer wearing the chevron is supposed to be the best soldier in the platoon and he is supposed to know how to perform all the duties expected of him. The American soldier expects his sergeant to be able to teach him how to do his job. And he expects even more from his officers.

General of the Army Omar N. Bradley

1-67. The Army defines leadership as influencing people-by providing purpose, direction, and motivation-while operating to accomplish the mission and improving the organization. The Army leadership framework comprises values, attributes, skills, and actions-summarized by the shorthand expression, BE-KNOW-DO.

1-68. Army leadership begins with character, the values and attributes that shape what the leader must BE. Army leaders must demonstrate exemplary conduct in their professional and personal lives. They adopt and internalize the Army Values and develop the requisite mental, physical, and emotional attributes of a warrior. Additionally, the ambiguous nature of the operational environment requires Army leaders to know themselves and deal with circumstances as they are, not as they want them to be.

1-69. Interpersonal, conceptual, technical, and tactical skills constitute what a leader must KNOW. Army leadership demands competence in a diverse range of human activities that expand in complexity in positions of greater responsibility. Army leaders maintain and advance the body of knowledge that guides land operations.

1-70. In the new security environment, cultural awareness has become one of the most important knowledge areas for Army leaders. Army leaders develop their knowledge of major world cultures and learn how those cultures affect military operations. The Army's rich mix of Soldiers' backgrounds and cultures is a natural enabler of cultural awareness. Effective Army leaders get to know their Soldiers; in doing so, they increase their awareness of different perspectives. This knowledge helps them become more self-aware and adaptive.

1-71. But character and knowledge-while absolutely necessary-are not enough. Leadership demands action-the self-discipline to DO what feels or is known to be right. Army leaders must act in both immediate conditions, which may be complex and dangerous, and over the long term, where the effects of decisions may not be readily apparent. Army leaders exercise influencing actions to motivate and mentor subordinates. They execute operating actions to conduct operations. And they perform improving actions to continually develop and increase the proficiency of their units, their Soldiers, and themselves. Leadership is a lifelong learning process for Army leaders, but action is its essence.

1-72. Today's security environment demands more from Army leaders than ever before. Army leaders must not only be able to lead Soldiers but also influence other people. They must be able to work with members of other Services and governmental agencies. They must win the willing cooperation of multinational partners, both military and civilian. But ultimately, the Army demands self-aware and adaptive leaders who can compel enemies to surrender in war and master the circumstances facing them in peace. Victory and success depend on the effectiveness of these leaders' organizations. Developing effective organizations requires hard, realistic, and relevant training.


1-73. Army forces train every day. After the War of 1812, Secretary of War John C. Calhoun articulated the sole purpose of a peacetime army-to prepare for war. But in today's security environment, the Nation is engaged in a protracted war-the War on Terrorism. The Army no longer considers itself a peacetime army preparing for war. Today peace is the exception. Deployments, including combat operations, are normal. To prepare Soldiers and units to operate in this new strategic context, the Army is training them for ongoing operations and preparing for other possible contingencies simultaneously.

1-74. The threats facing the Nation require the Army to provide a continuous supply of relevant and ready landpower to combatant commanders and civil authorities. To accomplish this, the Army follows a structured progression of unit readiness known as the operational readiness cycle. It consists of three phases: reset/train, ready, and available. The operational readiness cycle begins with a redeployed unit and produces combat ready, available forces. These forces are trained, equipped, resourced, and ready for deployment to fulfill the combatant commanders' operational requirements when needed.

1-75. The Army trains to meet the gravest military threat to the Nation's security- fighting a peer or near-peer competitor-because this capability is fundamental to strategic deterrence. But gone are the days when the Army could focus training only on major combat operations. Today the Army must train Soldiers and units to fight insurgents and other irregular threats while executing multiple operations worldwide. The complexities of the strategic environment demand a balanced training focus. Leaders and units must be prepared to expect the unexpected. Organizations must be adaptable and flexible. Both leaders and organizations must be able to accomplish missions throughout the range of military operations and at locations distributed throughout the operational area. Focusing training on capabilities at one end of the range of military operations and neglecting those on the opposite end is unacceptable. It would create an asymmetry for adversaries to exploit. Training that produces balanced capabilities is essential to remaining relevant and ready. Units and leaders must be prepared to operate under any conditions and in any environment.

1-76. Increasingly, Army forces have little time to train before deploying. To increase readiness for no-notice expeditionary operations, the Army is modifying its training model to coincide with the new operational readiness cycle. The Army is moving from an "alert-train-deploy" training model to a "train-alert-deploy-employ" model. Furthermore, the Army has modified training and education to provide key skills and knowledge Soldiers require. Lessons learned from recent operations are quickly incorporated into systems and training scenarios at home stations, mobilization stations, and combat training centers. Training conditions on ranges and other facilities reflect the current security environment. Language, cultural awareness, and regional expertise education and training are included.

1-77. Army training includes a system of techniques and standards that allow Soldiers and units to determine, acquire, and practice necessary skills. This allows them to maintain a high level of warfighting readiness. Candid after action reviews and repeated application of skills under changing conditions reinforce training and readiness standards. The Army is also applying significant resources to ensure training enhances Soldier and unit effectiveness. It is incorporating operational lessons learned into all its systems and training scenarios at mobilization stations and combat training centers. Additionally, it is assigning veterans with current operational experience to key joint positions and as instructors and doctrine developers. These practices and the Army's training system helps Army leaders develop quality Soldiers and lethal units with relevant skills, ready for conditions in today's operational environment.


1-78. Doctrine is the concise expression of how Army forces contribute to campaigns, major operations, battles, and engagements. It is a guide to action, not hard and fast rules. Doctrine provides a common frame of reference across the Army. It helps standardize operations, facilitating readiness by establishing common ways of accomplishing military tasks. Standardization means that Soldiers transferring between units do not need to learn new ways to perform familiar tasks.

1-79. Doctrine facilitates communication among Soldiers, contributes to a shared professional culture, and serves as the basis for curricula in the Army education system. The Army is a learning organization. It has evolved with the Nation through societal changes, technological advancements, and ever changing international circumstances. It continually revises its doctrine to account for changes, incorporating new technologies and lessons from operations. It improves education and training processes to provide Soldiers with the most challenging and realistic experience possible. It aims to impart to Soldiers and units the individual and collective skills, knowledge, and attributes required to accomplish their missions.

1-80. Doctrine links theory, history, experimentation, and practice. Its objective is to foster initiative and creative thinking. Doctrine encapsulates a larger body of knowledge and experience. It provides an authoritative statement about how military forces conduct operations and a common lexicon with which to describe them. Doctrine furnishes the intellectual tools with which to diagnose unexpected requirements. It also provides a menu of practical options based on experience from which self-aware and adaptive Army leaders can create their own solutions quickly and effectively.


.[Y]ours is the profession of arms-the will to win, the sure knowledge that in war there is no substitute for victory; that if you lose, the nation will be destroyed; that the very obsession of your public service must be Duty-Honor-Country.

General of the Army Douglas MacArthur

1-81. The profession of arms involves the disciplined use of legally sanctioned force to defend the security of the Nation, its ideals, and its way of life. Nested in the profession of arms and providing the Nation's major source of landpower is the Army, whose members are educated, trained, and organized to win. The Army's culture encompasses the traditions, norms of conduct, and ideals that have evolved since its inception in 1775.

1-82. The Army's most important guiding values and standards are written in the Army Values, Soldier's Creed, and Warrior Ethos. These instill in every Soldier the will to win and make great personal sacrifices-sometimes the ultimate sacrifice-in selfless service to the Nation. In answering the call to duty, Soldiers voluntarily limit certain rights to become disciplined, competent practitioners of the art and science of war. In so doing, they guarantee the Nation's security.

1-83. For over two centuries, the Army has served the Nation in peace and war. It has adapted repeatedly and successfully to changing conditions and situations. As technologies and conditions change, the Army will continue to develop leaders and train Soldiers to contribute landpower to joint operations. Above all, however, the Army will continue to provide versatile land forces ready to fight and win the Nation's wars. These forces-both the Regular Army and the Reserve Components-will remain relevant and ready to defend America's Constitution against all enemies, foreign and domestic.