• President Harry Truman signs a proclamation making May 19 Armed Forces Day, April 2, 1951.  At the time of this photograph, the Army had been operating the nation's railroads for over seven months.  Secretary of the Army Frank Pace, Jr., stands directly behind Truman, fourth from the left.  Other notables in the image:  Secretary of Defense George C. Marshall sits to the right of Truman; Gen. of the Army Omar Bradley, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, stands second from the right; and Gen. J. Lawton Collins, Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, stands at the far right.

    Truman and military officials

    President Harry Truman signs a proclamation making May 19 Armed Forces Day, April 2, 1951. At the time of this photograph, the Army had been operating the nation's railroads for over seven months. Secretary of the Army Frank Pace, Jr., stands...

  • While the military kept America's railroads running under Truman, it sought the opposite elsewhere.  Here, the Fifth Air Force's 452nd Light Bomb Wing drops napalm on rail cars south of Wonsan, North Korea, an east coast port city, circa

    Korean War railroad attack

    While the military kept America's railroads running under Truman, it sought the opposite elsewhere. Here, the Fifth Air Force's 452nd Light Bomb Wing drops napalm on rail cars south of Wonsan, North Korea, an east coast port city, circa

  • In this Signal Corps photograph, a Weasel goes on a test drive during World War II.  The Sixth Army sent Weasels to help evacuate passengers on a snowbound train in California, January 1952.

    Weasel on the move

    In this Signal Corps photograph, a Weasel goes on a test drive during World War II. The Sixth Army sent Weasels to help evacuate passengers on a snowbound train in California, January 1952.

  • A copy of Truman's order for the Army to return railroads to private control, May 23, 1952.  Reprinted in the report "Army Operation of the Rail Transportation Systems, Pursuant to Executive Orders Nos. 10141 and 10155" (Washington:  Office, Under Secretary of the Army, 1952).

    Truman's order to return railroads to private control

    A copy of Truman's order for the Army to return railroads to private control, May 23, 1952. Reprinted in the report "Army Operation of the Rail Transportation Systems, Pursuant to Executive Orders Nos. 10141 and 10155" (Washington: Office, Under...

  • The patch of the U.S. Army Transportation Corps, from the U.S. Army Heritage Museum's collections. During the Army's control of the nation's railroads, the Chief of Transportation was designated the Director of Operations for rail management, reporting directly to the Assistant Secretary of the Army on rail systems matters. The Transportation Corps insignia, with a winged railroad car wheel, was approved in 1919 and reflects the corps' long involvement with rail transportation.

    U.S. Army Transportation Corps patch

    The patch of the U.S. Army Transportation Corps, from the U.S. Army Heritage Museum's collections. During the Army's control of the nation's railroads, the Chief of Transportation was designated the Director of Operations for rail management, reporting...

Two years ago this month, Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast. In its aftermath, the Army played an important role in evacuation and relief efforts while still serving in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Though of an unusually large scale, Katrina was not the first time the Army had to respond to a domestic crisis while fighting a war overseas. One such time occurred 57 years ago this week.

On August 25, 1950, President Harry Truman ordered the Army-two months into the Korean War-to seize control of all major U.S. railroads from the 194 owning companies by August 27. The order came before a national labor strike, scheduled for August 28, would have shut down the country's most important means of transportation.

Secretary of the Army, Frank Pace, Jr., said in a statement that day, "We must not permit the flow of essential support to the forces in Korea to be interrupted." Assistant Secretary of the Army, Karl Bendetsen, telegraphed the union presidents and rail companies and asked if labor and management would work under Army control. Both sides agreed to comply with the Army's request for continued operations, and the labor unions called off their strike.

The strike plans arose out of more than a year of disagreements between unions and rail companies over wage demands and desired rule changes. The sides took another 21 months to reach a settlement; meanwhile, the Army retained control of national rail operations while also handling the Korean War.

Due to the wartime shortage of troops, the Army spared only 46 officers, one enlisted man (a sergeant), and eight civilian clerks to full-time rail service. It did this successfully by staying in the background when possible, interfering with rail operations only when necessary to maintain uninterrupted service.

Such interruptions were rare. One occurred from December 13 to 15, 1950, when rail employees in Chicago, St. Louis, Washington, and other major rail junctions held unorganized "sick strikes," where many employees essentially "called in sick" at once. The Army sought court action against the unions and President Truman appealed to employees to return to work in a December 15 radio address, both of which helped to end the disruption quickly.

Occasional crises required larger Army intervention. On January 13, 1952, snow slides caused by a blizzard blocked the Southern Pacific Railroad in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, near Immigrant Gap, California. A San Francisco-bound luxury train with 196 passengers and 30 crew members became stuck in the snow. The Sixth Army cooperated with railroad management and state highway crews in rescue and relief, sending troops with Weasels-tracked snow vehicles-to reach the train. Crews freed the stranded train on January 16, using the Weasels to evacuate some passengers.

On May 21, 1952, rail companies and the major labor unions finally settled their dispute. President Truman approved return of the rail systems to private ownership on May 23. Secretary Pace formally terminated 21 months of wartime control of America's railroads later that day.

Page last updated Tue July 3rd, 2007 at 16:03