Addenda K: Space and Missile Defense
The proliferation and easy availability of space based capabilities profoundly impacts all aspects of military operations. Current and future operations demand the effective allocation and integration of available assets which include national as well as commercial and international space capabilities. Information derived from space systems assures the Army’s ability to deploy and employ its full spectrum capabilities into permissive and non-permissive environments world-wide. Space based capabilities assist commanders in knowing the location of friendly and enemy forces and terrestrial or space environmental conditions, providing ballistic missile early warning, and guaranteeing global communications. The Nation and the Army must retain our space superiority to ensure successful operations in the future.
Due to the ever increasing proliferation of ballistic, cruise missile, and other potentially destructive technologies, we must now more than ever mitigate or defeat their threat to the homeland, forward deployed forces, and allies. The Ground-based Mid-course Defense capability is just one aspect of our Nation’s layered missile defense forces. Its effectiveness lies in the synergy of space based capabilities and ground based capabilities that transcend geographic boundaries.
Army Space and Missile Defense operational capabilities and requirements in terms of Joint Command and Control, Battle-Space Awareness, Force Application, Focused Logistics, and Joint Force Protection are:
Joint Command and Control (JC2) focuses on a commander’s need to continually address changing situations and missions by dynamically linking functions across the operational environment. The cornerstone of JC2 in the future is a multi-layered Command and Control (C2) network that facilitates essential C2 processes from the strategic to the tactical level. A satellite communication network enables extended range connectivity, even to forces on the move, and includes all echelons in the operational environment. Space-based Position Velocity Navigation Timing (PVNT) capabilities allow commanders to shape the operational environment through control of extended range munitions and better coordinating the maneuver of forces.
Battlespace Awareness focuses on a better understanding of the operational environment through the integration of highly responsive overhead, airborne, and terrestrial sensors into a common operating picture. Information derived and analyzed from space-based and other sensors leads to the development of useful real-time products such as the enemy’s disposition on the urban battlefield.
Force Application focuses on better synchronizing full-spectrum capabilities to create the effects necessary to achieve assigned mission objectives. Space-based force enhancement and application capabilities provide Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR), PVNT data, communications connectivity, weather information, precision weapons control, space control, target tracking, and damage assessment.
Focused Logistics provides visibility of the supply chain to ensure support arrives where and when it’s needed. Space-based PVNT, ISR, SATCOM, weather, terrain and environmental monitoring systems facilitate focused logistics by providing information such as trafficability estimates, parts, and equipment visibility.
Joint Force Protection provides missile launch detection, and protects Military Satellite communications (MILSATCOM) networks, PVNT information, and space-based ISR data.
To succeed in an era of persistent conflict, support an expeditionary Army, and mitigate or defeat the threats posed by he proliferation of ballistic, cruise missile, and other potentially devastating technologies, the Army must retain fully modernized and technologically advanced Space and Missile Defense capabilities.