SUBJECT: Additional information on Army Initiatives to Improve in Irregular Warfare (IW)
1. PURPOSE: To provide information on current and future IW initiatives
- The Army conducted an IW study as part of the Quadrennial Defense Review Integrated Joint Ground Capabilities assessment.
- The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) definition. Irregular warfare is warfare in the service of political ends that applies or counters organized political violence and subversion by, with, or through armed individuals or groups that are not members of the regular armed forces or constabularies of any country.
3. DISCUSSION: The Army conducted an analysis of Doctrine, Organization, Training, Material, Leader Development and Education, Personnel and Facilities (DOTMLPF) to identify what the Army is currently doing and where the Army needs to focus its efforts to properly address emerging IW requirements.
- Published Field Manual 3.07-22, Counterinsurgency Operations in October 2004; Combined Arms Center is in the process of revising.
- Exploring implications of a future dominated by irregular challenges through Unified Quest 2006.
- Capstone Concept, The Army in Joint Operations, 2015-2024 postulates operations in a complex environment in which threats combine aspects of all four challenges (Irregular, Traditional, Catastrophic and Disruptive).
- Transforming doctrine development processes through knowledge management and Center of Army Lessons Learned in order to rapidly disseminate best practices.
- Grow Army Special Operations Forces
- Army Force Generation Model (ARFORGEN) enables the Army to better sustain protracted conflict
- Increasing capabilities/capacity of the 20th Support Command (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear High-Explosive (CBRNE))
- The Army is standing up a Joint Center for International Security Force Assistance at the Combined Arms Center
- Army Operations (G-3/5/7) is standing up the Security, Stability, Transition and Reconstruction (SSTRO) Branch
- Established Foreign Security Force Training effort under 1st Infantry Division at Fort Riley
- Peace Keeping and Stability Operations Institute (PKSOI) engaging Interagency and Non-Governmental Organizations to develop tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) and relationships in support of SSTRO
- Army initiative to address Foreign Military Training (FMT)
- Modular force provides enhanced capabilities for acquiring, analyzing and processing information at the Brigade Combat Team (BCT) level
- Military Intelligence (MI) and Signal companies, with Human Intelligence (HUMINT) capability
- Information Operations, Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations (PSYOPS) planning and integration capability embedded in the BCT Staff
- Establishment of Task Force Improved Explosive Device-Defeat, Asymmetric Warfare Group which is now under OSD control as the Joint Improved Explosive Device-Defeat Organization (JIEDDO)
- Establishment of an MI Interrogation Battalion
- Army support to Joint Intelligence Fusions Centers
- Mine Clearance Companies
- The Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) has stood up a Cultural Awareness Center of Excellence at the MI School that conducts training development based on lessons learned to improve programs of instruction throughout TRADOC schools and provides mobile training teams and training products to units.
- Army is standing up Translator Interpreter units in both the active and reserve components to enable field commanders with this capability.
- Establishment of a Cultural Center of Excellence at Fort Huachuca
- Army has organized Transition Teams (TT) designed to train Iraqi and Afghan forces to maintain internal security and defeat the insurgency.
- 4 BCTs equivalent of leadership
- 1st Infantry Division to Command and Control and deploy TTs.
- Adoption of Contemporary Operating Environment through Battle Command Knowledge System in all aspects of training, especially at Combat Training Centers (CTCs)
- Complex physical, human and informational terrain
- Insurgent threat
- Joint, Interagency and Multinational Environment; replication of Non-Governmental Organizations
- Intermediate Level Education Curriculum incorporates counterinsurgency, terrorism, strategy, Intelligence and defeating IEDs.
- Incorporation of cultural awareness training
- Warrior Ethos: Increased marksmanship, combatives, battle drills and warrior tasks
- Executing Mission Rehearsal Exercises at Maneuver CTCs that enable units to focus on specific mission requirements such as IW.
- Army Special Warfare Center is transforming the one of their training exercises to incorporate TTPs and foreign language and culture scenarios.
- The Army has made available through AKO an On-Line foreign language instruction capability that is available twenty-four hours a day, 7 days a week, to all military and Department of the Army civilians to enhance foreign language awareness.
- Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center continues a 5 year program to enhance the proficiency of Soldiers that require a foreign language skill through smaller student to instructor ratios.
- Army supports/funds Airborne Reconnaissance Low (ARL)/ Guardrail Common Sensor
- Developed process to regularly spiral capabilities into Current Force
- Up-armored HMMWVs
- Rapid Fielding Initiative
- Individual Body Armor (IBA) to every deployed soldier and civilian
- Establishment of Rapid Equipping Force
Leader Development and Education
- Established “Red Team Leaders Course” at the University of Foreign Military and Cultural Studies that will provide field commanders with highly trained individuals to enhance planning processes.
- Implemented BOLC I-III, with six-week BOLC II emphasis on junior leader development dealing with adaptability using scenario based education to nurture rapid decision making process
- Introduction of electives in intermediate level education which are relevant to the IW challenges that mid-career officers will face
- TRADOC is working the integration of the following topics into Professional Military Education that will enhance understanding by officers and NCOs of IW challenges. These topics include detainee operations, anti-terrorism, information assurance, “Every Soldier a Sensor”, cultural awareness, and Counter-Insurgency.
- Combat veterans as drill sergeants, veteran company commanders as instructors
- Increased FAO Program
- Increased linguist/translator/interpreter requirements throughout force
- Increased accession/specialty pay/reenlistment bonus for language and cultural expertise
- Lifecycle Management to maximize unit cohesion, deployability and readiness
- Working with JFCOM on the Joint Urban Operations Training Area Initiative
- Enhanced the Army knowledge management collaboration environment to rapidly retrieve doctrine and related combat experiences.
- The Army continues to transform to meet future war fighting requirements while maintaining a force that can operate in any environment across the full-spectrum of operations.
- Both current operations and the strategic environment dictate that IW will be at the heart of the Army’s transformation.