U.S. Northern Command’s essential mission is to defend the
homeland. NORTHCOM achieved full operational capability on 1 October
2003. As NORTHCOM’s Army component and Joint Force Land Component
Command, U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) provides critical planning
activities and command-and-control functions for operations throughout
the area of responsibility.
In support of Operation Noble Eagle, Soldiers have or are currently
guarding airports, military installations of the various services,
nuclear power plants, dams, power-generation facilities, tunnels,
bridges, rail stations and emergency operations centers. Ground-based
air defense artillery units from both the active component and the
ARNG continue to assist the North American Aerospace Command (NORAD)
in the National Capital Region. Additionally, we are preparing units
to employ new, active, missile-defense capabilities (see Addendum
The Army also
maintains reaction forces, on a graduated response posture. They
are prepared to support any homeland defense mission, to help in
consequence management and to fulfill the DoD Civil Disturbance
an extensive planning and exercise program focused on sharpening
the skills required to deter threats against our homeland or to
provide support to civil authorities.
U.S. Joint Forces
As the joint
force’s integrator, Joint Forces Command relies heavily on
the Army. After September 11, in its role as the Army service component
command to JFCOM, FORSCOM conducted the largest mobilization of
Army National Guard and Army Reserve forces since the Korean War.
In addition to supporting overseas operations, JFCOM deployed Soldiers
to execute homeland defense missions, civil support missions and
force protection requirements associated with Operation Noble Eagle.
As part of JFCOM’s
training and experimentation requirements, in 2003 Army units took
part in National Training Center and Joint Readiness Training Center
rotations. Additionally, units participated in a series of experimentation
war games, such as Millennium Challenge. JFCOM and Army Training
and Doctrine Command co-sponsored this year’s Army Transformation
War Game, Unified Quest 03, at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania.
The Global War
on Terrorism places a significant burden on America’s military,
wherever they serve. In the CENTCOM area of responsibility, the
Army has assumed the heaviest load. Since October 2001, Soldiers
have made vital contributions to the joint team as part of Operation
Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. In Operation Iraqi Freedom, active
and reserve component Army forces played a monumental role in the
defeat of Saddam Hussein’s armed forces. CENTCOM is currently
executing the largest rotation of forces since WWII as we rotate
troops in and out of its area of responsibility. In addition to
operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, Army Soldiers are part of CENTCOM’s
efforts to deter terrorism in the Horn of Africa. They also support
long-standing missions, such as the Multi-National Force and Observers
(MFO) in the Sinai.
from Europe were, and continue to be, instrumental in the liberation
of Iraq and the success of OIF. Soldiers based in Germany and Italy
demonstrated the Army’s expeditionary capabilities by deploying
to the Persian Gulf region. V Corps provided combat, combat support
and combat service support units to the joint force effort that
thrust more than 500 kilometers from the Kuwaiti border into the
heart of Baghdad. In addition to these accomplishments, Europe-based
Soldiers simultaneously supported OEF in Afghanistan; provided the
bulk of U.S. forces in Kosovo Peace Implementation Force (KFOR)
rotations 4A and 4B; and sustained other EUCOM commitments. The
Army continues to shoulder the demands of Operation Joint Forge,
as members of the Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina;
and Operation Joint Guardian, as part of NATO’s Kosovo peace
implementation force. Army National Guard units, in particular,
play a major role in, and provide leadership for, SFOR and KFOR.
Soldiers also took part in Operation Joint Task Force Liberia, supplying
SOF, headquarters and medical personnel.
Within the Asia-Pacific
region, the Army conducts a variety of critical missions for U.S.
Pacific Command. U.S. Army Pacific (USARPAC) functions as the joint
force headquarters responsible for homeland defense/civil support
missions on all bases and in all U.S. territories within the PACOM
area of responsibility. USARPAC provides trained and ready forces
in support of security operations, from engagement to warfighting;
these troops promote regional stability, and ensure successful crisis
response and decisive victory.
USARPAC manages the intermediate staging base and provides the in-country,
joint logistics support element. In Korea, Eighth U.S. Army Soldiers
fall under the Combined Forces Command and stand ready with our
United Nations’ partners to deter North Korean aggression.
Beyond the PACOM area of operations, USARPAC supports OEF and OIF
by providing trained and ready Army rotational forces from bases
in Alaska, American Samoa, Guam, Hawaii and Japan.
Theater Security Cooperation Program, Army units participate in
major joint and multinational exercises, which strengthen bilateral
ties and promote multilateral engagement. More than a half dozen
partner nations, such as Australia, India, Korea, and Japan, participate
in these exercises.
area of responsibility encompasses the vital southern and maritime
approaches to the United States and many of our closest neighbors.
The Army is fully engaged in fighting terrorism, promoting democracy
and securing regional stability as a member of the joint team. By
providing the service component headquarters for the mission at
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, Soldiers supply critical support to the Global
War on Terrorism. Elsewhere in the region, they aid the government
of Colombia in its war against narco-terrorist organizations; in
the elimination of drug production; and in the establishment of
security and stability. Our Soldiers at Joint Task Force Bravo (JTF-B)
at Soto Cano Airbase in Honduras provide strong support for regional
security missions in Central America. The missions are joint, combined,
and interagency in nature and act in coordination with U.S. Embassy
country teams. Additionally, JTF-B provides humanitarian assistance,
disaster relief, regional search and rescue, and contingency operations
as required. Reserve component units conduct security-cooperation
and other operations in the hemisphere, to include: training partner-nation
militaries; participating in officer exchanges; constructing schools
and clinics; drilling wells; and providing medical, dental and veterinary
services to selected countries. Soldiers also work closely with
our neighbors during multinational exercises that improve hemispheric
security and the homeland security of the United States.
Operations Command (SOCOM)
the Army’s Special Operations Forces (SOF) continue to serve
as a vital component of the joint special operations team of SOCOM.
Demand for their services is growing as the Global War on Terrorism
proceeds and the Army and joint team prepare to meet future security
challenges. SOF Soldiers were instrumental in the success of OEF
and OIF; Army Special Forces worked closely with our conventional
forces to accomplish many tough missions. SOF Soldiers, including
psychological operations elements and civil affairs forces, continue
to play a key role in Afghanistan and Iraq operations. Army Special
Forces also were an integral part of Operation Joint Task Force
Liberia and are the key element of Plan Colombia. SOF Soldiers train,
advise and assist many foreign militaries, including the armed forces
of the Philippines and the Republic of Georgia.
C (Successful Recruiting Initiatives)
To ensure that
we continue to recruit and retain sufficient personnel, we are monitoring
the current environment and its impact on morale, unit cohesiveness
and combat effectiveness. The challenges we face in FY04 and FY05
are twofold. First, we must optimize recruiter productivity. Second,
we must make the best use of our recruiting resources to maintain
momentum when the economy becomes more robust. Properly resourcing
recruiting pays dividends well beyond accessions in the year of
execution. For example, Army advertising in FY03 influenced not
only FY03 recruits, but also potential candidates who will make
enlistment decisions in FY04 and later. We attribute the success
achieved in recruiting so far to a series of programs described
Incentives, including the Enlistment Bonus Program, The Army College
Fund, and the Loan Repayment Program, enabled the Army to execute
precision recruiting in FY03. At a time when the Army is engaged
in the GWOT and executing missions such as Operation Enduring Freedom
and Operation Iraqi Freedom, recruiting successes have directly
supported combat readiness.
Candidate (18X) “Off the Street” Enlistment Initiative:
This effort enlists highly motivated, qualified and dedicated individuals,
who desire the adventure and mission focus inherent in the U.S.
Army Special Operations Forces. There were 465 enlistments in FY02
and 1,022 in FY03. The FY04 goal is 1,500.
First”: First-year applicants receive a $250 per month allowance
and second-year applicants receive a $350 per month allowance while
attending up to two years of post-secondary education on campus
in a full-time status prior to beginning active duty. There were
380 enlistments for this test through FY01, 579 in FY02 and 1,064
in FY03. This test program will continue in FY04.
Army Motor Sports
Program: In FY03, the Army’s partnership with the National
Hot Rod Association (NHRA) and the National Association of Stock
Car Automobile Racing (NASCAR) continued. Schumacher Racing joined
the Army’s NHRA team with a fuel dragster called “The
Sarge.” The Army also added two, top professional stock bike
racers: Angelle Savoie, the woman with the most wins in NHRA history;
and Antron Brown.
for Youth Success (PaYS): This program provides America’s
youth with an opportunity to serve their country while preparing
for their future. Soldiers acquire technical skills required by
industry and learn professional ethics, teamwork, communication
and leadership during an enlistment in the Army. A comprehensive
database, matching company needs with the Initial Entry Training
job skills offered by the Army, enables the recruit to decide which
firms and skills to pursue. An agreement with a specific company
detailing the military skills to be acquired, the prospective civilian
job and terms of service is prepared upon enlistment. After concluding
his active duty tour, or for reservists upon completion of Initial
Entry Training, the Soldier interviews and finishes the application
process at the company selected during the recruiting process. FY03
was the first year this program was offered with USAR enlistments.
In FY03, 9,663 regular Army and 546 USAR Soldiers entered service
under this option. Approximately 70 corporations or organizations
participate in this partnership.
Option: The Army implemented the National Call to Service enlistment
option on 1 October 2003. By 1 December 2003, 50 enlistees had chosen
D (Well-Being Initiatives)
is the centerpiece of our combat formations and is indispensable
to the joint force. As people are the heart and soul of the Army,
its preparedness to carry out its missions is directly linked to
Soldier Well-Being. We must make every effort to ensure that the
Army’s investment in its people is in keeping with the commitment
and sacrifices we expect of them.
This year, we
hosted two major fora focused on Well-Being. The Army placed particular
emphasis on the reserve component and its efforts in support of
national security and the Global War on Terrorism, both at home
and abroad. As part of the Army’s Well-Being initiative, we
will continue to expand the scope of people-oriented initiatives
beyond the traditional, active-duty focus to include all reserve
component Soldiers and the entire Army Family. We already have implemented
several initiatives, and more are planned for this fiscal year.
and increase of Imminent Danger Pay
and increase of Family Separation Allowance
- Sizable pay
raise effective 1 January 2004
- Rest and
Recuperation (R&R) Leave Program (CENTCOM)
- Special R&R
rates for flights, rental cars and hotels
Other key Well-Being
Six hundred unit-level recreation kits are in theater to support
both Coalition Joint Task Force-Iraq (CJTF-7) and Operation Enduring
Freedom. Fitness and recreation facilities are operational at 20
large, enduring camps in the CTJF-7 area of responsibility. Fitness
equipment will be placed at 40 other smaller sites. The Community
and Family Support Center and CJTF-7 have purchased equipment for
Internet cafes and Internet access is free. The cost for satellite
phones has been greatly minimized to just five cents per minute.
Stars & Stripes is being printed in Baghdad and 800 book kits
are being shipped each month.
at Home Stations
Army Community Service (ACS) Family Readiness personnel conduct
training to help families respond to deployments. In FY 2003, ACS
gave 2,400 pre-deployment briefings to more than 244,000 Soldiers
and family members; 1,100 post-deployment briefings to 77,000 Soldiers
and family members; 1,600 Family Readiness Group training sessions
to 50,000 Soldiers and family members; more than 200 Family Readiness
Liaison Officer training sessions to 12,700 Soldiers; and 176 Rear
Detachment Commander training sessions to 4,300 Soldiers and family
members. Child and Youth Services at 64 installations provided more
than 260,000 hours of extended childcare to 23,000 children and
teenagers. This extra care supported Soldiers and family members,
who attended ACS training sessions or worked extended hours and
provided respite for spouses of deployed Soldiers.
The Army formally unveiled the Spouse Employment Partnership on
7 October 2003 at the Association of the United States Army annual
meeting. The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Manpower and Reserve
Affairs and senior executives from 13 Fortune-500 companies signed
a statement of support aimed at enhancing employment opportunities
for Army spouses. This is a significant milestone for Army spouses,
as employment opportunities available to them are a prime consideration
in retention decisions. Participating companies include: Army Air
Force Exchange Service (AAFES), BellSouth, Boys & Girls Clubs
of America, Computer Sciences Corporation, CVS Pharmacy, Dell Inc.,
Home Depot, Hospital Corporation of America, Lockheed Martin, Manpower
Inc., Sears Logistics Services, Sprint and Merck & Company.
Additionally, there are two military partners: the Army Career and
Alumni Program (ACAP) and the Civilian Human Resources community.
The Army is still working to encourage states to grant in-state
tuition in both the place of official residence and the place of
assignment; and to establish continuity of the benefit until graduation
for the children of Soldiers, who transfer to another state following
matriculation. We are making progress; Texas and Georgia recently
passed legislation to cover both in-state tuition and continuity
of the benefit upon reassignment.
Transition Study (SETS)
In response to SETS findings, a memorandum of agreement (MOA) to
facilitate participation of school superintendents in improving
high school transition for DoD children was signed. The agreement
is global and provides a common structure for information sharing
and reciprocal processes. In collaboration with the MOA signatories,
an Army-wide action plan to improve high school transition was developed.
This plan, along with other information, can be found at the Military
Child Education Coalition web site.
Reserve Job Centers
These new centers assist National Guard and Reserve Soldiers in
finding jobs when they return home from deployment. While many Soldiers
resume their former positions, some find the employment on which
they were counting is no longer there; companies go out of business
or relocate. Sometimes, the Soldier discovers he has outgrown the
previous job. The centers work closely with the Department of Labor,
state employment offices and the Department of Veterans Affairs
to help make the transition back to civilian life as quick and trouble-free
Families left behind and returning Soldiers receive much-needed
support, especially during the transition from the stressful environment
of combat operations to the more traditional garrison lifestyle.
A crucial part of this support is the “Army One Source”
(AOS), a toll-free 24/7 phone service. This program provides information
and referrals to Soldiers, deployed civilians and their family members,
and is available stateside as well as overseas. Within the continental
United States, AOS offers up to six, prepaid counseling sessions.
The highly qualified staff can address a variety of subjects, from
TRICARE to childcare.
HOOAH 4 Health
The Army Surgeon General has a unique web site for Soldiers and
others to obtain information about maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
This interactive web site is loaded with health and wellness tips
focused on self-awareness and self-discipline tools used to make
essential lifestyle changes that can improve one’s quality
and Accounting (DFAS)
DFAS this year implemented significant improvements to “myPay.gov.”
Soldiers, civilians, retirees and annuitants can view their leave
and earnings statements and other valuable information via this
Polices for the Reserve Components
Due to the extended Global War on Terrorism and increased reliance
on Guard and Reserve Soldiers, Congress has approved enrollment
eligibility to TRICARE Prime for family members whose Soldier is
on federal active duty for more than 30 days. This program is designed
to reduce the anxiety of deployed reserve component Soldiers regarding
their family’s health care.
The Army has begun several programs to enhance our installations.
The objective is take better care of Soldiers and their families
while fulfilling the installation’s mission as power-projection
platform. Many of the programs are focused on improving efficiency.
Among them are:
- Army Family
of and consolidation of facilities
The latter effort
has resulted in the disposal of 34 percent of Army facilities, which
will allow reallocation of resources to other, higher priority requirements.
The Army also is divesting itself of the operation and maintenance
of non-core utility systems through privatization. To date, 84 of
350 systems have been privatized, with another 211 under negotiation
or contract development.
The Army must strive to provide distance-learning solutions that
facilitate the delivery of the right information and skills to the
right people at the right time. eArmyU goes where Soldiers go. It
is a smart, streamlined and effective learning opportunity that,
due to its unique portal technology, advances the Army into the
rapidly developing e-learning market.
eArmyU, the Army enhanced traditional Army distance-learning programs
and services with an anytime, anywhere program that ensures eligible
enlisted Soldiers can fulfill their educational goals. Administered
by the Army Continuing Education System (ACES), key objectives of
eArmyU are to improve well-being, to increase retention and to enhance
readiness by providing learning opportunities that develop the critical
thinking and decisionmaking skills required on today’s battlefields.
the technology provided through the world’s largest education
portal -- http://www.earmyu.com/ -- Soldiers currently access curricula
at more than 27 regionally accredited universities that offer virtual
classrooms and libraries, academic advisement, and administrative
and technical support. Together, these institutions offer Soldiers
a choice of 147 different degree programs.
eArmyU is currently
available at 14 installations, and more than 40,437 Soldiers are
now enrolled in the program. As of 14 Oct 2003, more than 9,976
Soldiers had permanently changed duty stations from their original
enrollment installations but continue to participate in eArmyU from
locations worldwide, including 46 countries, four U.S. territories
and 50 states.
E (Missile Defense)
is a vital warfighting requirement for protecting our homeland,
deployed forces, friends and allies. It consists of both ballistic
and cruise missile defense capabilities, which are achieved through
a joint integrated system consisting of satellite sensors; early
warning and fire control sensors; command and control centers; and
missile platforms. Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) efforts must
be focused on all phases of missile defense operations: the boost
phase, the mid-course phase, and the terminal-phase. Cruise Missile
Defense (CMD) must be joint, integrated and have a wide-area scope
attained via singular or networked sensors, which can be elevated,
ground-based, airborne or space-based. They must also take advantage
of integrated fire control to take full advantage of the kinematic
range of joint missiles. Missile Defense is a joint capability to
which the Army is a major contributor.
Presidential Directive (NSPD) No. 23 directs the deployment of a
set of missile defense capabilities in 2004. The Army is in the
process of fielding an initial defense capability: the Ground-based
Midcourse Defense System. Based in Alaska and California, it will
provide the initial set of defense capabilities needed to protect
the homeland against missiles in the midcourse flight range. This
system will evolve to meet the changing threat and to take advantage
of technological developments; in the future it will be integrated
with the Army’s Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)
and other systems operated by sister services. The ARNG activated
units in both Colorado and Alaska to support this mission.
The Army is
continuing to deploy the Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) missile
system to counter theater missiles in their terminal flight phase.
In addition, the Army is examining options to field incrementally
the Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS) within existing Patriot
forces as a means to improve Army terminal defense warfighting capabilities
and to accelerate the overall MEADS fielding process. MEADS will
provide a more mobile, deployable, CMD-capable system with wider
The Army, with
the concurrence of the Joint Staff, is accelerating its CMD capability
to meet the emerging cruise missile threat. The critical components
include the Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted
Sensor System (JLENS), the Surface Launched Advanced Medium-Range
Air-to-Air Missile (SLAMRAAM), and integrated fire control. JLENS
will provide an elevated, enduring, wide-area surveillance and fire
control sensor to the Joint Force.
Army air defense
artillery units, from both the AC and ARNG, also are supporting
the air defense of the National Capital Region. Both components
operate ground-based air defense weapons and surveillance systems.
F (Chemical Demilitarization)
Title 50, United
States Code, section 1521 directs DoD to destroy the United States'
chemical weapons stockpile. This statute also provides for the establishment
of a management organization within the Department of the Army to
carry out this mission. Effective 18 February 2003, the Secretary
of the Army transferred department oversight of the chemical demilitarization
program from the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations
and Environment) to the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition,
Logistics and Technology); and directed establishment of the Chemical
Materials Agency to execute the program for chemical weapons storage
2000, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System completed
the destruction of the last munitions stored at the atoll, and closure
operations were completed in November 2003. The Tooele Chemical
Agent Disposal Facility in Utah has incinerated 44 percent of the
chemical agents and 82 percent of the munitions stored there. The
incineration facility at Anniston, Alabama, began destruction operations
in August 2003 and has destroyed more than 45 tons of chemical agents.
Incineration facilities at Umatilla, Oregon, and Pine Bluff, Arkansas,
are expected to begin destruction operations in 2004. The accelerated
neutralization of the bulk chemical agent stockpile in Aberdeen,
Maryland, began in April 2003; completion is expected in 2004. Accelerated
disposal of bulk agents using a neutralization process at Newport,
Indiana, is scheduled to commence in 2004. To date, the Army has
destroyed more than 8,250 tons of chemical agent, some 26.2 percent
of the United States’ stockpile.
For the Non-Stockpile
Chemical Materiel Product, all Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
requirements have been met to date and the Product is on track to
meet future CWC milestones. Demolition of the former production
facility at Aberdeen, Maryland, is complete and demolition is ongoing
at the former production facilities in Newport, Indiana, and Pine
Bluff, Arkansas. The Mobile Munitions Assessment System (three each);
the Rapid Response System (one each); the Single CAIS Access and
Neutralization System (multiple units); and the Explosive Destruction
System (three each) are deployable to assess and dispose of recovered
chemical warfare materiel.
On 16 July 2002,
the Defense Acquisition Executive (DAE) approved neutralization
followed by bio-treatment as the technology for destruction of the
chemical agent stored at Pueblo, Colorado. On 3 February 2003, the
DAE approved neutralization followed by supercritical water oxidation
as the technology for destruction of the chemical agent stored at
Blue Grass, Kentucky. These technologies were demonstrated under
the Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (ACWA) Program pursuant
to section 8065 of PL 104-208 and section 142 of PL 105-261. In
accordance with these statutes, the Program Manager for Assembled
Chemical Weapons Alternatives administers these programs under the
direction of OSD. In October 2003, the Executive Council of the
Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) granted
the U.S. State Department’s request to extend the 45 percent
destruction milestone for the United States’ CWC Category
1 chemical weapons from 29 April 2004 to 31 December 2007.
G (Focused Logistics Initiatives)
H (Business Practices)
The Army will
continue its efforts to improve business practices and processes
in order to make the best use of valuable resources and to provide
the finest support possible for Soldiers. Coupled with the ongoing
imperative to balance investments between current and future readiness,
these measures represent the soundest approach to reducing risks
today while still allowing for the greatest investment in improved
capabilities for tomorrow.
Many of our
initiatives are designed to leverage resource investment and over
time to improve the Army’s capabilities. The Army seeks ways
to employ existing capabilities more effectively and to integrate
new capabilities more rapidly into the force. For example, the Strategic
Readiness System (SRS) enables a results-oriented process whereby
resources can be allocated not only on the basis of perceived needs,
but also according to what actually is being accomplished.
The Army has
started to install comprehensive, integrated and interoperable human-resource
programs, policies and procedures. In FY03, the Army merged the
Active- and Reserve-Component personnel commands into a single entity,
the Human Resources Command (HRC). The Civilian Human Resources
Agency (CHRA) eventually will merge into HRC, as well.
initiatives are some of the more important examples of the Army’s
transformation in business practices:
- Army Logistics
Enterprise Integration -- The Army Materiel Command’s high-level
Army logistics operational and systems architecture
Base Strategic Initiatives -- Diverse strategy with common emphasis
on implementing lean philosophy and on pursuing public-private
partnerships to improve efficiency, to optimize utilization and
to upgrade core capabilities.
- Ground Systems
Industrial Enterprise (GSIE) -- Initiative by the Tank-Automotive
and Armaments Command to transform the core capabilities at specific
installations and to foster additional partnering arrangements
with industry and the field.
Based Logistics (PBL) -- Part of the OSD Acquisition Reform, which
emphasizes solutions as opposed to process.
and Modeling for Acquisition, Requirements and Training (SMART)
Initiative -- Will allow the Army to address the Future Force
within the framework of emerging joint concepts and will lead
to a better understanding of the capabilities required for the
- Army Knowledge
Online (AKO) -- Provides an information-sharing service from fixed
installations to deployed elements and serves as the Army’s
intranet, supplying a single-access source of information to Department
of the Army personnel. AKO leverages the Army’s intellectual
capital to better organize, train, equip and maintain the force.
- The Army
enterprise Human Resource System (eHRS) -- Converts more than
200 human resource systems into a single, web-based system. It
includes the Defense Integrated Military Human Resource System
(DIMHRS), a DoD directed software capability based on a commercial
off-the-shelf (COTS) management system. eHRS includes modules
that provide additional capabilities not available though DIMHRS
and is needed for the Army to manage its workforce.
I (Immediate Focus Areas)
The Senior Leadership
of the Army has established the following immediate focus areas
to channel Army efforts on winning the Global War on Terrorism and
increasing the relevance and readiness of the Army.
The Focus Areas
- The Soldier
– Develop flexible, adaptive and competent Soldiers with
a Warrior Ethos.
- The Bench
– Prepare future generations of senior leaders. Identify
and prepare select Army leaders for key positions within joint,
interagency, multinational and Service organizations.
- Combat Training
Centers/Battle Command Training Program – Focus training
at CTC and BCTP to meet requirements of current security context,
and Joint and Expeditionary Team.
- Leader Development
and Education – Train and educate Army members of the Joint
- Army Aviation
- Conduct a holistic review of Army Aviation and its role on the
- Current to
Future Force – Accelerate fielding of select Future Force
capabilities to enhance effectiveness of Current Force. Army transformation
is part of constant change.
- The Network
– Leverage and enable interdependent, network-centric warfare.
– Create modular, capabilities-based unit designs.
- Joint and
Expeditionary Mindset – Retain our campaign qualities while
developing a Joint and Expeditionary Mindset.
- Active Component/Reserve
Component Balance – Redesign the force to optimize the Active
and Reserve Component (AC/RC) mix across the defense strategy.
- Force Stabilization
– Improve combat readiness and deployability of units while
providing increased stability and predictability to Soldiers and
Intelligence – Provide situational understanding to Commanders
and Soldiers with the speed, accuracy and confidence to impact
current and future operations.
as Our Flagships – Enhance installation ability to project
power and support families.
Responsibilities, and Accountability – Clarify roles and
enable agile decision-making.
Processes – Redesign resource processes to be flexible,
responsive, and timely.
Communications – Tell the Army Story so that the Army’s
relevance and direction are clearly understood and supported.
J (Joint Operations Concepts)
As the Army
evolves into a capabilities-based organization, it is leveraging
the emerging joint concepts under development by the Joint Staff
and the Combatant Commands to help focus transformation efforts.
Joint concepts serve as the engine of change for future military
capabilities. Joint concept development occurs within an evolving
framework that includes the overarching Joint Operations Concept
(JOpsC), four supporting Joint Operating Concepts (JOCs), and associated
functional and enabling concepts. The JOpsC describes how the joint
force intends to operate 15 to 20 years in the future across the
entire range of operations. It provides the operational context
for transformation, linking strategic guidance with the integrated
application of joint force capabilities. The JOCs describe how the
future joint force will operate within the specific range of military
operations and identify how the joint force commander will meet
selected contingencies. These JOCs also delineate the operational
capabilities needed for joint warfighting. The Army assists in formulating
these concepts and leverages them to help focus its own capabilities
development. The four JOCs are Major Combat Operations, Stability
Operations, Homeland Security and Strategic Deterrence.
Within the operational
environment, Army forces are designed, organized and trained to
provide Combatant Commanders full-spectrum, land-power capabilities
for responsive and successful execution of JOCs. Further, Army forces
must be capable of rapidly transitioning between mission sets, tasks
and conditions inherent in the JOCs. It is essential to recognize
that each JOC is not a stand-alone operation and that JOCs usually
occur simultaneously, whether in multiple regions, in a single joint
operations area (JOA), or both. The Army, as part of the Joint Team,
must retain the capacity to support global operations while maintaining
the ability to rapidly and seamlessly transition to meet new and
changing requirements. Annex B of the Army Strategic Planning Guidance
establishes the strategic basis for prioritizing Army capabilities
to best contribute to the joint capabilities and methods required
to meet Combatant Commander requirements.
Concepts complement the JOCs and serve to help focus capability
development. While each of the JOCs is focused on a particular type
of future operation, the functional concepts describe approaches
to providing a particular military capability across the range of
operations. The five functional concepts are Command and Control,
Battlespace Awareness, Force Application, Focused Logistics and
and Control (Army C2) is a critical enabler for, and a fully interoperable
component of, joint command and control (JC2). Army C2 consists
of two components: Army Battle Command (cognitive and technical
aspects) and the Army network component of the Global Information
The Critical Enabler for Transformation
battle command capabilities are the bridge from the Current to Future
Force and enable the joint force commander to conduct fully interdependent,
network-centric warfare. The Army views battle command, the art
and science of applying military leadership and decision-making,
as the essential capability that facilitates the conduct of joint
operations. Enabled by C4 and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance,
battle command enhances the commander’s ability to gain information
and decision making advantages over any adversary. Further, C4 and
ISR networks, empowered by the Global Information Grid (GIG), will
create an inherently joint, top-down network that provides common
situational awareness and improves battle command.
of command and control and Army perspectives of battle command are
complementary and commander-centric. Both exploit technologies and
processes to achieve advantages that allow commanders to achieve
better situational understanding and decision dominance. Army battle
command efforts are now integrating Future Force C2 capabilities
to the existing Current Force. The Army’s fielding of advanced
battle command capabilities to the Third Infantry Division during
Operation Iraqi Freedom is a good example of this process.
As with the
overall Army transformation effort, Army battle command encompasses
the entire spectrum of DOTMLPF solutions. These DOTMLPF solutions
operate across two domains -- the cognitive and technical domains
of Army battle command. The cognitive domain addresses the requirements
of commanders to understand, respond and shape their environments.
The technical domain depends on the development and fielding of
improved technologies that will enable changes within the cognitive
domain and battle command as a whole.
The Army Component
of the Global Information Grid (GIG)
The Army continues
to develop its communications architecture as a member of the Joint
Team with the intent of synchronizing its networked capabilities
into the GIG. By exploiting the GIG, the Army benefits from the
seamless, end-to-end connectivity that improves the flow of information
and enables a collaborative environment. The transformation of Army
communications is an inherently joint process, and the joint interdependencies
cannot be overstated. Future Army networks are being designed as
a fully interdependent component of the joint network. As Future
Force network capabilities integrate into the GIG, the Army expects
to leverage its highly mobile, self-organizing, self-healing, multilevel,
secure, resilient and ubiquitous networking capabilities. When the
GIG architecture is linked to transformational communications enhancements,
such as dynamic radio frequency allocation, adaptable waveforms,
laser communications, satellite cross-linking and fiber offloading
of the space segment, then many of the existing communications constraints
that tactical units encounter will be eased. Further, Army tactical
C2 will develop into a seamless and comprehensive collaborative
environment. Working in this collaborative environment, Army forces
harness the power of the ongoing revolution in information technology
to connect people and systems -- horizontally and vertically --
within the joint network. Army components of the GIG, when tied
to ISR systems, will enable the Joint Force Commander to see first,
understand first, act first and finish decisively.
Commanders and all force elements must understand the environment
in which they operate and the adversaries they face. The Battlespace
Awareness Functional Concept articulates a need for the capability
to create an interactive network that is continuously synchronized
with operations while simultaneously providing users both real-time
and archived data. The product of these efforts is Actionable Intelligence.
transformation represents a fundamental change to the way the Army
thinks about and performs intelligence collection, analysis, production
and dissemination. The new focus emphasizes the cognitive requirements
of knowledge creation. Intelligence transformation changes the focus
from systems and processes to solutions that improve the warfighter’s
understanding of the battlespace. Fused intelligence and assessment
capabilities provide dominant knowledge to the commander, informing
decisionmaking and enabling predictive cognizance. Intelligence
transformation delivers high-quality and timely intelligence across
the range of military operations.
to achieving this new capability is development of actionable intelligence
that is tailored to the needs of the decision maker. Actionable
intelligence allows greater individual initiative and self-synchronization
among tactical units. Further, actionable intelligence allows the
commander to sustain initiative and create opportunities for exploitation
of information. The challenge is to redefine Army intelligence so
that every Soldier is both a contributor to and a consumer of the
global intelligence enterprise. While tactical commanders nearest
to the fight can leverage modular, tailored packages to develop
intelligence, a grid of analytic centers focused on their intelligence
needs also supports them. To achieve this objective, Army intelligence
pursues six fundamental ends:
- Change Army
Intelligence Culture: Create a campaign-quality, joint and expeditionary
mindset through doctrine, operational and personnel policies,
regulations and organizations in order to develop intelligence
professionals, competent from mud to space, who know “how
to think” and are focused on the commander at the point
- Reshape Training:
Reshape training to provide the volume, variety and velocity of
intelligence and non-intelligence reporting.
- Rapid Technology
Prototyping: Develop an agile technology enterprise that enables
the intelligence force to respond to a learning enemy with the
best technical solutions available in real time.
- Create the
Framework: Create an information and intelligence grid that is
inherently joint and provides a common operating picture, universal
visibility of assets, horizontal and vertical integration, and
situational understanding, thereby linking every ‘Soldier
as Sensor and Consumer’ to analytic centers.
- Enhance Tactical
Echelons: Provide actionable intelligence for tactical echelons.
Design modular, intelligence force packages that are easily and
quickly tailored and aligned to support any battlefield or situation.
HUMINT and Counter-Intelligence (CI): Grow a CI and HUMINT force
with a more tactical focus that provides more relevant reporting.
The Army delivers
materiel readiness to the Current and Future Forces as the land-power
component of the joint force. Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) presents
a view of future military operations that guides Army logistics
transformation efforts. At the same time, OIF exposes shortfalls
the current logistics system faces on a twenty-first century battlefield.
That battlefield is both joint and combined, and it is characterized
by dispersed operations, decentralized execution and increased threat
to the lines of communication and traditional rear areas. In essence,
OIF is a twenty-first century war supported by a twentieth century
enjoyed during OIF were the result of the integrated logistics team
of Soldiers, civilians and contractors who developed innovative
solutions to a range of challenges and delivered readiness to the
warfighter. Since Operation Desert Storm (ODS), investments made
in logistics systems produced a number of success stories:
- Major improvements
to airfields, seaports, railheads and strategic-lift platforms
allowed Army units to deploy in record time.
Army Prepositioned Stocks consisting of combat ready equipment
allowed the joint force commander to build combat power in theater
in a matter of days rather than weeks.
- The Theater
Support Vessel provided the joint force commander a robust, new
option for intra-theater movement.
the technological improvements made since Desert Storm have not
been fully extended to Army logistics forces. Army logistics does
not have the ability to integrate completely due to four capability
shortfalls outlined below.
- Connect Army
Logisticians: Army logistics currently lacks agile, assured and
networked logistics information systems that would allow logisticians
to “see the requirements” in near real time; nor can
the customers “see the support” heading their way.
Logisticians require the ability to see the requirements on-demand,
24 hours a day and 7 days a week; but, the decision-support tools
necessary for sense-and-respond logistics do not exist. Additionally,
both the logistician and the customer must be able to access a
dedicated, logistics data network.
- A Modern
Theater Distribution System: Logisticians today require positive
control of an end-to-end sustainment system, a single doctrine
and full integration across the strategic, operational and tactical
levels in order to execute continuous operations over extended
distances. Army logistics lacks a fully integrated and responsive
distribution system enabled by in-transit and total asset visibility,
which would make possible the speed and precision required in
a distribution-based sustainment environment.
- Better Force-Reception
Capabilities: Army logistics requires a modular, force-reception
structure that quickly opens a theater and supports continuous
sustainment throughout the joint operations area, including austere
environments. The Army is developing a brigade-sized Unit of Action
capable of deploying anywhere in the world within 96 hours. A
robust, modular, theater-opening capability must be on the same
deployability timeline to enable the simultaneous execution of
the deploy, employ and sustain functions.
- An Integrated
Supply Chain. The supply chain must be optimized and fully integrated
for major combat operations and fully capable across the entire
spectrum of operations. Actions to reduce excess inventories have
been taken at many layers in the Army and national supply systems,
without consideration for the total impact. The supply chain also
must have a single proponent, who can reach across the breadth
and depth of resources in a joint, interagency and multinational
consists of those actions taken to prevent or mitigate hostile actions
against DoD personnel, including family members, resources, facilities
and critical information. Force protection is accomplished through
planned and integrated application of several security-related and
supporting operations and programs including: law enforcement, physical
security, protective services operations, critical infrastructure
protection, information operations, crisis response, consequence
management, intelligence and counterintelligence, intelligence fusion,
active/passive CBRNE defense, counterterrorism and antiterrorism.
and recommendations concerning force protection programs have been
documented by the Cole Commission, in the Downing Report on the
Khobar Towers bombing, and through field assessments by the Department
of the Army Inspector General, Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations
and commanders. Our force-protection priorities remain focused on:
supporting operational forces and equipment already deployed and
in-transit; capitalizing on threat reporting and coordination with
international and national intelligence and law enforcement agencies;
enhancing detection and deterrence capabilities for Chemical, Biological,
Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE) threats; institutionalizing
installation access control for personnel and vehicles; improving
policy and doctrine; strengthening training and exercises; and expanding
force protection assessments.
programs will continue to focus on ensuring the adequacy of: policy
and programs; physical-security technology initiatives; access control;
and civilian police and guard initiatives necessary to protect the
individuals and property supporting worldwide Army operations. We
continue to assess our critical infrastructure program to ensure
adequate protection against potential threat actions.
For more information
on Missile Defense, see Addendum E.
is the combination of maneuver and fires, enabled by offensive information
operations (IO), to accomplish the desired objective. The Army provides
the Joint Force Commander the means to conduct force application
through the exercise of direct, continuous and comprehensive control
over terrain, resources and people. This control is critical to
the synergistic and integrated application of the military instrument
to compel physical or behavioral changes to potential adversaries.
As a component of the joint force, the Army provides sustained land
dominance through conventional and unconventional forces that use
a variety of lethal, non-lethal, kinetic and non-kinetic means.
In conjunction with the joint team, the Army provides full-spectrum
forces able to integrate maneuver, fires and IO across the full
range of military operations including: operational maneuver from
strategic distances; mobile strike operations; closing with and
destroying enemy forces; precision fires and maneuver; exercising
information superiority; commanding and controlling joint and multi-national
forces; and controlling and defending land, people and resources.
When committed, ground combat forces have the capability to rob
an adversary of initiative and remove his freedom to continue hostilities.
Sea, air and space dominance are invaluable, but only land dominance
brings hostilities to a decisive conclusion -- establishing and
maintaining favorable security conditions for more comprehensive
and enduring solutions to complex crises.